Failed Two-Stage Exchange: Factors Leading to Unachievable Endoprosthetic Reconstruction After Multiple Revision Surgeries
Abstract Background Information about the outcome after failed 2-stage exchange is scarce. The aim of this study is to determine possible influencing factors leading to multiple revisions, resulting in a failed endoprosthetic joint reconstruction. Methods Medical records of patients (15 hip and 29 knee joints) who had undergone additional revision surgeries due to a failed 2-stage exchange were reviewed concerning infection parameters, number and type of procedure(s), current state of the revised joint, and whether failure of endoprosthetic reconstruction had occurred. Results Endoprosthetic reconstruction was achieved in 52.3% ( n = 23) of the patients. About 36.4% ( n = 16) of patients successfully reached the second stage of the initial 2-stage exchange. Half of the patients ( n = 22) had to undergo spacer exchange in the initial interstage period. Five or more revision surgeries significantly increased the odds of failure of endoprosthetic reconstruction compared to patients with P = .016). Patients with initial culture-negative revision surgery showed no significant differences in the odds of failure of endoprosthetic reconstruction (odds ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.20-2.43, P = .567). Conclusion Patients undergoing re-revision surgery due to a failed 2-stage exchange are very likely to ultimately experience a failed endoprosthetic reconstruction. The identification of the underlying pathogen does not influence the likelihood of a better outcome in terms of a successful endoprosthetic reconstruction.
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