Incidence, Risk Factors, and Impact of Clostridium difficile Colitis Following Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty
Abstract Background An improved understanding of Clostridium difficile is important as it is used as a measure of hospital quality and is associated with substantial morbidity. This study utilizes the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program to determine the incidence, timing, risk factors, and clinical implications of C difficile colitis in patients undergoing primary total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA). Methods Patients who underwent primary THA or TKA as part of the 2015 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were identified. The primary outcome was a diagnosis of C difficile colitis within the 30-day postoperative period. Risk factors for the development of C difficile colitis were identified using Poisson multivariate regression. Results A total of 39,172 patients who underwent primary THA or TKA were identified. The incidence of C difficile colitis was 0.10% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.13). Of the cases that developed C difficile colitis, 79% were diagnosed after discharge and 84% had not had a preceding infection diagnosed. Independent preoperative and procedural risk factors for the development of C difficile colitis were greater age (most notably ≥80 years old, relative risk [RR] 5.28, 95% CI 1.65-16.92, P = .008), dependent functional status (RR 4.05, 95% CI 1.44-11.36, P = .008), preoperative anemia (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.28-4.97, P = .007), hypertension (RR 2.51, 95% CI 1.06-5.98, P = .037), and THA (vs TKA; RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.16-4.36, P = .017). Postoperative infectious risk factors were urinary tract infection (RR 10.66, 95% CI 3.77-30.12, P P P Conclusion High-risk patients identified in this study should be targeted with preventative interventions and have perioperative antibiotics judiciously managed.
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