Design of a bilevel clinical trial targeting adherence in heart failure patients and their providers: The Congestive Heart Failure Adherence Redesign Trial (CHART)
Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged patients are at an increased risk for adverse heart failure (HF) outcomes based upon nonadherence to medications and diet. Physicians are also suboptimally adherent to prescribing evidence-based therapy for HF. Methods Congestive Heart Failure Adherence Redesign Trial (CHART) (NCT01698242) is a multicenter, bilevel, cluster randomized behavioral efficacy trial designed to assess the impact of intervening simultaneously on physicians and their socioeconomically disadvantaged patients (annual income Results A total of 72 physicians (treatment, 35; control, 37) and their 320 patients (treatment, 157; control, 163) were recruited within 2 years. Randomization of physicians with all of their patients being assigned to the same arm was feasible and did not compromise the comparability of patients by arm. Using 5 recruiting hospitals located within disadvantaged neighborhoods produced a cohort that was primarily African American and representative of low-income urban patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Conclusion CHART will determine the value of intervening on low adherence simultaneously in physicians and their socioeconomically disadvantaged patients in reducing all-cause hospitalization days.
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