A county-level estimate of PM2.5 related chronic mortality risk in China based on multi-model exposure data
Abstract Background Ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution is currently a serious environmental problem in China, but evidence of health effects with higher resolution and spatial coverage is insufficient. Objective This study aims to provide a better overall understanding of long-term mortality effects of PM 2.5 pollution in China and a county-level spatial map for estimating PM 2.5 related premature deaths of the entire country. Method Using four sets of satellite-derived PM 2.5 concentration data and the integrated exposure-response model which has been employed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) to estimate global mortality of ambient and household air pollution in 2010, we estimated PM 2.5 related premature mortality for five endpoints across China in 2010. Result Premature deaths attributed to PM 2.5 nationwide amounted to 1.27million in total, and 119,167, 83,976, 390,266, 670,906 for adult chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, respectively; 3995 deaths for acute lower respiratory infections were estimated in children under the age of 5. About half of the premature deaths were from counties with annual average PM 2.5 concentrations above 63.61μg/m 3 , which cover 16.97% of the Chinese territory. These counties were largely located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the North China Plain. High population density and high pollution areas exhibited the highest health risks attributed to air pollution. On a per capita basis, the highest values were mostly located in heavily polluted industrial regions. Conclusion PM 2.5 -attributable health risk is closely associated with high population density and high levels of pollution in China. Further estimates using long-term historical exposure data and concentration-response (C-R) relationships should be completed in the future to investigate longer-term trends in the effects of PM 2.5 . Highlights Premature deaths attributable to PM 2.5 in China amounted to 1.27 million in the year 2010. Half of the premature deaths were from counties with annual PM 2.5 concentrations above 63.61 μg/m 3 , covering 16.97% of China. The PM 2.5 related mortality rate is 61.0/10 5 in the cleanest areas and 120.7/10 5 in the most polluted areas. Counties with high premature mortality were largely located in heavily polluted and densely populated regions. More than 58% of premature deaths were from the elderly group (aged 65 or more).
유료 다운로드의 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 신규 회원가입, 로그인, 유료 구매 등이 필요할 수 있습니다. 해당 사이트에서 발생하는 귀하의 모든 정보활동은 NDSL의 서비스 정책과 무관합니다.
원문복사신청을 하시면, 일부 해외 인쇄학술지의 경우 외국학술지지원센터(FRIC)에서
무료 원문복사 서비스를 제공합니다.
NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 위의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니 담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.
- 이 논문과 함께 출판된 논문 + 더보기