Hydrothermal synthesis of red phosphorus @reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid with enhanced electrochemical performance as anode material of lithium-ion battery
Abstract Red phosphorus @reduced graphene oxide (P @rGO) nanohybrid was synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal process. The obtained P @rGO nanohybrid was characterized by TEM, SEM, Raman, XRD and XPS. It was found that the nano-scale red phosphorus encapsulated in the reduced graphene oxide and the existence of phosphorus promote the reduction of graphene oxide. The electrochemical performance of P @rGO nanohybrid as an anode material was investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge, rate performance, cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance test. With increasing the mass of rGO, the electrochemical performance of P @rGO nanohybrid was significantly enhanced. The first discharge/charge specific capacity of the nanohybrid prepared at optimum condition (P:GO=7:3) could achieve approximately 2400mAh/g and 1600mAh/g respectively and still retained ∼1000mAh/g after 80 cycles and the coulombic efficiency maintained almost 100%. The enhancement in P @rGO nanohybrid was attributed to the introduction of graphene, which led to the elimination of volume effect and the enhancement of conductively of pure red phosphorus. Highlights Hydrothermal method was used to prepare ultrafine red phosphorus particles. Red phosphorus @reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid was fabricated by hydrothermal method. The nanohybrid showed prominent electrical properties. Reduced graphene oxide enhanced the conductivity of red phosphorus and eased its volume change. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION] Comparing with pure red phosphorus, red phosphorus @reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid (P@rGO) fabricated by hydro-thermal method shows preferable electrical properties. Reduced graphene oxide contributes to the enhancement conductivity and the remission of the volume change.
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