Synthesis and bio-evaluation of indole-chalcone based benzopyrans as promising antiligase and antiproliferative agents
Abstract DNA replication and repair are complex processes accomplished by the concerted action of a network of enzymes and proteins. DNA ligases play a crucial role in these processes by catalyzing the nick joining between DNA strands. As compared to normal cells, elevated levels of human DNA ligase I (hLigI) is reported in some cancers. We studied the inhibition of hLigI mediated DNA nick sealing activity followed by the antiproliferative activity of novel indole-chalcone based benzopyran compounds on cancer cells. One molecule called compound 27 showed a notable preference for inhibition of hLigI as compared to other ligases and showed enhanced cytotoxicity against colon cancer (DLD-1) cells as compared to normal cells. Mechanistic studies showed that compound 27 directly interacts with hLigI in a competitive manner and did not interact with the DNA substrate during ligation. This novel and potent hLigI inhibitor showed significant inhibition of both monolayer culture as well as 3D culture of DLD-1 cells that mimic solid tumor. It also affected the migration of DLD-1 cells indicating the potential anti-metastatic activity. This novel hLigI inhibitor could therefore serve as a promising lead for anticancer drug development. Highlights Indole-chalcone based benzopyrans were synthesized via multicomponent reaction. Compound 27 possessed both antiligase and antiproliferative activity. It induces apoptosis and is effective against 3D spheroid culture of DLD-1 cells. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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