A novel visible-light driven photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on multi-amplification strategy for ultrasensitive detection of microcystin-LR
Abstract An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay based on multiple signal amplification strategy was fabricated for the detection of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The CdS/TiO 2 nanorod arrays (CdS/TiO 2 NRAs) modified FTO electrode, which can weaken the self-oxidation by photogenerated holes of CdS nanoparticles, and limit the recombination of electron-hole pairs and broaden optical absorption of TiO 2 NRAs, was used as a visible-light driven material to immobilize antigens. Then, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles/polydopamine (Fe 3 O 4 @PDA) was used as the carrier to load secondary antibody (Ab 2 ) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), where Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and HRP can synergistically accelerate the oxidation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) by H 2 O 2 to produce biocatalytic precipitation (BCP) on the surface of modified electrode. Due to the catalytic activity of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and HRP, the nonproductive absorption of HRP and the steric hindrance by BCP, the photocurrent change was amplified. The proposed PEC immunosensor can detect MC-LR in a range of 0.005–500 μg/L with a detection limit of 0.001 μg/L. Meanwhile, the PEC immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good stability, acceptable selectivity and reproducibility, indicating its potential application in environmental monitoring. Highlights In-situ generation of CdS on TiO 2 NRAs with high photo-to-current conversion efficiency was used. Fe 3 O 4 @PDA conjugate was used as the label carrier to immobilize Ab 2 and HRP. Fe 3 O 4 NPs and HRP can synergistically accelerate the oxidation of 4-CN to produce BCP. An ultrasensitive PEC immunosensor was constructed for MC-LR detection. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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