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Analysis of Familial Aggregation in Total, Against-The-Rule, With-The-Rule, and Oblique Astigmatism by Conditional and Marginal Models in the Tehran Eye Study

Rakhshani, Mohammad H.    (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran   ); Mohammad, Kazem    (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran   ); Zeraati, Hojjat    (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran   ); Nourijelyani, Keramat    (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran   ); Hashemi, Hassan    (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran   ); Fotouhi, Akbar    (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran  );
  • 초록  

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine the familial aggregation of the total, against-the-rule (ATR), with-the-rule (WTR), and oblique astigmatism by conditional and marginal models in the Tehran Eye Study. Materials and Methods: Total, ATR, WTR, and oblique astigmatism were studied in 3806 participants older than 5 years from August 2002 to December 2002 in the Tehran Eye Study. Astigmatism was defined as a cylinder worse than or equal to −0.5 D. WTR astigmatism was defined as 0 ± 19°, ATR astigmatism was defined as 90 ± 19°, and oblique when the axes were 20–70° and 110–160°. The familial aggregation was investigated with a conditional model (quadratic exponential) and marginal model (alternating logistic regression) after controlling for confounders. Results: Using the conditional model, the conditional familial aggregation odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence interval) for the total, WTR, ATRs, and oblique astigmatism were 1.49 (1.43–1.72), 1.91 (1.65–2.20), 2.00 (1.70–2.30), and 1.86 (1.37–2.54), respectively. In the marginal model, the marginal OR of the parent-offspring and sib-sib in the total astigmatism were 1.35 (1.13–1.63) and 1.54 (1.13–2.11), respectively; WTR 1.53 (1.06–2.20) and 1.94 (1.21–3.13) and; ATR 2.13 (1.01–4.50) and 2.23 (1.52-3.30). The model was statistically significant in sib-sib relationship only for oblique astigmatism with OR of 3.00 (1.25–7.20). Conclusion: The results indicate familial aggregation of astigmatism in the population in Tehran adjusted for age, gender, cataract, duration of education, and body mass index, so that the addition of a new family member affected with astigmatism, as well as having a sibling or parents with astigmatism, significantly increases the odds of exposure to the disease for all four phenotypes. This aggregation can be due to genetic and/or environmental factors. Dividing astigmatism into three phenotypes increased the odds ratios.


  • 주제어

    Astigmatism .   Conditional and Marginal models .   Familial Aggregation.  

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