The elemental geochemistry of Lower Triassic shallow-marine carbonates from central Saudi Arabia: Implications for redox conditions in the immediate aftermath of the latest Permian mass extinction
Abstract The southern margin of the Tethys Ocean was occupied by a broad, shallow continental shelf during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval, with the area of present-day Saudi Arabia located from 10° to 30° south of the paleo-equator. The strata deposited in modern Saudi Arabia in the aftermath of the latest Permian mass extinction (LPME) are dominated by oolitic microbialite limestone (OML), which are overlain by skeletal oolitic limestones (SOL) capped by dolostones and dolomitic limestones (DDL). This succession reflects changes in depositional setting, which can be potentially tied to redox conditions using redox sensitive trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs). Statistical analyses reveals that trace elements and REEs are associated with detrital material, and possibly with diagenetic minerals as well. Proxies such as the Y/Ho, Pr/Pr*, Sm n /Yb n , La n /Sm n and La n /Yb n ratios indicate that REEs do not record a seawater-like pattern, and cannot be used as redox indicator. The presence of a normal marine fauna implies oxic conditions during deposition of the DDL and SOL units. However, the OML unit, which represents the immediate aftermath of LPME, lacks both a normal marine fauna and reliable geochemical signals, making it difficult to infer redox conditions in the depositional environment. Similar to published data from sections that reflect shallow marine condition in the LPME of the Tethys Ocean, chemical index of alteration values are consistently high throughout the study succession, suggesting globally intense chemical weathering in the aftermath of the LPME. As a result, geochemical redox proxies in shallow marine carbonates of the Tethys Ocean are likely to be contaminated by detrital material that have been generated by chemical weathering, and thus, other methods are required to determine depositional redox conditions. Highlights Redox sensitive elements (RSE) of Permian-Triassic boundary interval, Saudi Arabia. The studied interval represent shallow marine carbonate of the Tethys Ocean. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) was evaluated to understand the source of RSE. RSEs are associated with detrital material. CIA suggested chemical weathering, thus RSEs cannot be used as redox indicator.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.12.020
- Elsevier : 저널 > 논문
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