The effects of internal leakage on the performance of a micro gas turbine
Abstract Micro gas turbines are manufactured to have a compact structure and small volume, which makes them more vulnerable to internal leakages compared to heavy-duty gas turbines. Accordingly, precise diagnosis of the performance degradation in a micro gas turbine is important. This study investigates the characteristics of degradation. Performance maps were used for the compressor and turbine, and a multi-segment counter-flow heat exchanger model was used for the recuperator. The component models were refined using actual operation data, resulting in precise simulation of the reference operation without leakage. A performance analysis was carried out, and the results were analyzed for three types of leakage with the following paths: from the compressor outlet to the recuperator’s cold-side outlet, from the compressor outlet to the combustor outlet, and from the combustor inlet to the turbine outlet. The third path produced the largest reduction in engine efficiency. The degradations were also compared with those related to compressor fouling and turbine erosion, which are the most common causes of degradation in a gas turbine. Even when qualitatively similar performance changes were observed, the root cause could be determined by analyzing differences in performance parameters such as the fuel flow. Highlights Degradation characteristics of a micro turbine by internal leakages are analyzed. An off-design analysis was carried out after validation using actual operating data. Three types of leakages were comparatively analyzed using parameter sensitivities. The leakage from combustor inlet to turbine exit showed the largest efficiency loss. Performance losses were compared to those by compressor fouling and turbine erosion.
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