Blood heparin sensor made from a paste electrode of graphite particles grafted with molecularly imprinted polymer
Abstract A real-time heparin monitor could be used to optimize the dosage of heparin during extracorporeal circulation procedures. This report describes the development of a graphite-paste (GP) electrode with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) grafted onto it. Heparin-imprinted poly (methacryloxyethyltriammonium chloride - co - acrylamide - co - methylenebisacrylamide) was grafted directly onto graphite particles. The grafted particles were thoroughly mixed with oil to fabricate the MIP-GP electrode. Traditional cyclic voltammetry was performed with the electrode in physiological saline or bovine whole blood containing 5 mM ferrocyanide and 0–8 units/mL heparin. The current intensity increased with heparin concentration, due to expansion of the effective surface area resulting from heparin-promoted mobility of the oil in the MIP-GP electrode. No significant difference was found in the sensitivity of the current to unfractionated heparin among the electrodes fabricated because of the electrode homogenization resulting from thorough mixing of the MIP-grafted particles and oil. (A previous MIP-grafted indium tin oxide electrode exhibited lower sensitivity in blood than in saline.) Only 60 s were needed to stabilize the current. The current at the MIP-GP electrode was also sensitive to low-molecular-weight heparin in blood, but insensitive to chondroitin sulfate C (CSC), which is a heparin analog. The non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-grafted electrode was insensitive to heparin. Thus, the MIP-GP electrode, which operated through a new heparin-sensing mechanism, is an excellent candidate for application as a disposable sensor to monitor heparin levels in blood. Highlights Heparin imprinted polymer was grafted onto graphite particles directly. The paste electrode of the grafted graphite is sensitive to heparin. The electrode response is reproducible due to homogenization of the particles. Surface area of the imprinted electrode is increased by the specific interaction. The heparin-imprinted electrode can detect low molecular weight heparin. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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