Rotational paper-based electrochemiluminescence immunodevices for sensitive and multiplexed detection of cancer biomarkers
Abstract This paper describes a novel rotational paper-based analytical device (RPAD) to implement multi-step electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassays. The integrated paper-based rotational valves can be easily controlled by rotating paper discs manually and this advantage makes it user-friendly to untrained users to carry out the multi-step assays. In addition, the rotational valves are reusable and the response time can be shortened to several seconds, which promotes the rotational paper-based device to have great advantages in multi-step operations. Under the control of rotational valves, multi-step ECL immunoassays were conducted on the rotational device for the multiplexed detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and prostate specific antigen (PSA). The rotational device exhibited excellent analytical performance for CEA and PSA, and they could be detected in the linear ranges of 0.1–100 ng mL −1 and 0.1–50 ng mL −1 with detection limits down to 0.07 ng mL −1 and 0.03 ng mL −1 , respectively, which were within the ranges of clinical concentrations. We hope this technique will open a new avenue for the fabrication of paper-based valves and provide potential application in clinical diagnostics. Highlights The novel rotational paper-based devices (RPADs) opened a new avenue for the fabrication of 3D paper-based devices. The integrated paper-based rotational valves could be easily operated in a simple, low-cost and user-friendly way. Multi-step ECL immunoassays were conducted for the detection of cancer biomarkers by the manipulation of rotational valves. Graphical abstract This paper describes a rotational paper-based analytical strategy to implement multi-step electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for cancer biomarkers. [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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