Skeletal metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: A review
Background Renal cell carcinoma account for 3% of all cancers, with peak incidence between 60 and 70 years of age predominantly affecting male population. Renal carcinoma is the most common malignancy of kidney constitutes for 80–90% of renal neoplasm with an overall 45% five years survival rate. Majority are diagnosed incidentally during investigation for other disease process of abdomen. Classical triad of gross hematuria, pain and palpable mass in abdomen is rare accounting to only 6–10%. Treatment of early stages of disease i.e. localized disease is partial or radical nephrectomy. Most common metastasis in RCC occurs to lung, followed by bone involvement in 20–35%, lymph nodes, liver, adrenal gland and brain. In metastatic disease median survival rate of patient is about eight months with 50% mortality rate within first year of life, five years survival rate is 10%. Skeletal metastasis are very destructive in patients with renal cell carcinoma compromising bone integrity leading to skeletal related events including pains, impending fractures, nerve compressions, hypercalcemia and even pathological fractures which may require surgical interventions and other therapy. In addition to skeletal complications, presence of bone metastases in RCC has negative impact on progression free survival and overall survival of patients treated with systemic therapies. Objective In this review we discuss pathophysiology of tumor metastasis, diagnosis, management and Case examples of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion Incidence of metastatic renal carcinoma is increasing. Overall prognosis of patient with advanced RCC is poor, emphasizing the importance of early detection and prompt treatment of primary lesion in its early stage. Advancement in targeted therapy in recent decades had made some improvement in treatment of SREs and has helped in improving patent's quality of life but still we are in need of further improvement in treatment modalities to cure disease thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Highlights • Renal cell carcinoma account for 3% of all cancers. • It is a very destructive that may compromise bone integrity. • Most common metastasis in renal cell carcinoma occurs to lung, followed by bone , lymph nodes, liver, adrenal gland and brain. • Most common metastasis in renal cell carcinoma occurs to lung, followed by bone involvement in 20–35%, lymph nodes, liver, adrenal gland and brain. • In metastatic disease median survival rate of patient is about eight months with 50% mortality rate within first year of life, five years survival rate is 10.
- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2018.01.002
- PubMed Central : 저널 > https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5832646
- Elsevier Health : 저널
- Elsevier : 저널
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