Validation of two-phase CFD models for propellant tank self-pressurization: Crossing fluid types, scales, and gravity levels
Abstract This paper examines our computational ability to capture the transport and phase change phenomena that govern cryogenic storage tank pressurization and underscores our strengths and weaknesses in this area in terms of three computational-experimental validation case studies. In the first study, 1g pressurization of a simulant low-boiling point fluid in a small scale transparent tank is considered in the context of the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiment to showcase the relatively strong capability that we have developed in modelling the coupling between the convective transport and stratification in the bulk phases with the interfacial evaporative and condensing heat and mass transfer that ultimately control self-pressurization in the storage tank. Here, we show that computational predictions exhibit excellent temporal and spatial fidelity under the moderate Ra number – high Bo number convective-phase distribution regimes. In the second example, we focus on 1g pressurization and pressure control of the large-scale K-site liquid hydrogen tank experiment where we show that by crossing fluid types and physical scales, we enter into high Bo number – high Ra number flow regimes that challenge our ability to predict turbulent heat and mass transfer and their impact on the tank pressurization correctly, especially, in the vapor domain. In the final example, we examine pressurization results from the small scale simulant fluid Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TCPE) performed in microgravity to underscore the fact that in crossing into a low Ra number – low Bo number regime in microgravity, the temporal evolution of the phase front as affected by the time-dependent residual gravity and impulse accelerations becomes an important consideration. In this case detailed acceleration data are needed to predict the correct rate of tank self-pressurization. Highlights 2D & 3D CFD storage tank models developed for 1g & microgravity application. CFD predictions of tank pressurization compared to 3 classes of experiments. Simulations in good agreement with moderate Ra simulant fluid experimental results at both high and low Bo. Crossing scales and fluids to high Ra numbers LH2 experiments introduces computational challenges. More profound understanding of turbulence transport and interfacial mass transfer is needed for cryogenic fluids.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryogenics.2017.10.019
- Elsevier : 저널> 권호 > 논문
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