Experimental investigation of passive thermodynamic vent system (TVS) with liquid nitrogen
Abstract Thermodynamic vent system (TVS) is an attractive technology to maintain an allowable pressure level of a cryogenic propellant storage in a spacecraft under micro-gravity condition. There are two types of TVS; active or passive. In this paper, the passive TVS which does not utilize a cryogenic liquid circulation pump is experimentally investigated with liquid nitrogen and numerically analyzed by thermodynamic and heat transfer model. A cylindrical copper tank, which is 198 mm in inner diameter and 216 mm in height, is utilized to suppress a thermal-stratification effect of inside cryogenic fluid. A coil heat exchanger, which is 3 m in length and 6.35 mm in outer diameter, and a fixed size orifice of which diameter is 0.4 mm are fabricated to remove heat from the stored fluid to the vented flow. Each vent process is initiated at 140 kPa and ended at 120 kPa with liquid nitrogen fill levels which are 30%, 50% and 70%, respectively. In the numerical model, the fluid in the tank is assumed to be homogeneous saturated liquid-vapor. Mass and energy balance equations with heat transfer conditions suggested in this research are considered to calculate the transient pressure variation in the tank and the amount of heat transfer across the heat exchanger. We achieve the average heat rejection rate of more than 9 W by TVS and conclude that the passive TVS operates satisfactorily. In addition, the prediction model is verified by experimental results. Although the model has limitation in providing accurate results, it can surely predict the tendency of pressure and temperature changes in the tank. Furthermore, the model can suggest how we can improve the heat exchanger design to enhance an overall efficiency of passive TVS. Moreover, the performance of passive TVS is compared with other cryogenic vent systems (direct vent system and active TVS) by suggested performance indicator. Highlights Passive TVS is investigated experimentally according to various LN 2 fill levels. The prediction model to analyze performance of the passive TVS is constructed. The model predictions are compared to the experimental results. The non-dimensionalized performance indicator for vent systems is proposed. The performance of passive TVS is compared with other cryogenic vent systems.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryogenics.2017.11.001
- Elsevier : 저널> 권호 > 논문
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