Inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii as a bio-protection agent in winemaking
Abstract In oenology, bio-protection consists in adding bacteria, yeasts or a mixture of microorganisms on grape must before fermentation in order to reduce the use of chemical compounds such as sulphites. More particularly, non- Saccharomyces yeasts are used as a total or partial alternative to sulphites. However, scientific data capable of proving the effectiveness of adding these yeasts on grape must is lacking. This study reports the analysis of antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of one non- Saccharomyces yeast, Torulaspora delbrueckii , inoculated at the beginning of the white winemaking process in two Burgundian wineries as an alternative to sulphiting. The implantation of the T. delbrueckii strain was successful in both wineries and had no impact on fermentation kinetics. Adding T. delbrueckii reduced biodiversity during the pre-fermentation stages compared to sulphited controls and it also effectively limited the development of spoilage microorganisms in the same way as the addition of sulphites. T. delbrueckii could protect must and wine from oxidation as demonstrated by the analysis of colour and phenolic compounds. This is the first evidence that early addition of T. delbrueckii during winemaking can be a microbiogical and chemical alternative to sulphites. However, its contribution seems to be matrix dependent. Highlights The yeast T. delbrueckii is proposed as a bio-protective agent as an alternative to sulphites in winemaking. The addition of a T. delbrueckii strain in must led to a decrease in biodiversity compared to the addition of sulphites. T. delbrueckii strain limited the development of spoilage microorganisms in the same way as the addition of sulphites. The antioxidant activity of a T. delbrueckii strain in must is directly dependent on the dissolved oxygen concentration. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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