Morphological characterization of a plant-made virus-like particle vaccine bearing influenza virus hemagglutinins by electron microscopy
Abstract Plant-made virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that display wild-type influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are rapidly advancing through clinical trials. Produced by transient transfection of Nicotiana benthamiana , these novel vaccines are unusually immunogenic, eliciting both humoral and cellular responses. Here, we directly visualized VLPs bearing either HA trimers derived from strains A/California/7/2009 or A/Indonesia/5/05 using cryo-electron microscopy and determined the 3D organization of the VLPs using cryo-electron tomography. More than 99.9% of the HA trimers in the vaccine preparations were found on discoid and ovoid-shaped particles. The discoid-shaped VLPs presented HA trimers on their outer diameter. The ovoid-shaped VLPs contained HA trimers evenly distributed at their surface. The VLPs were stable for 12 months at 4 °C. Early interactions of the VLPs with mouse dendritic and human monocytoid (U-937) cells were visualized by electron microscopy after resin-embedding and sectioning. The VLP particles were observed bound to plasma membranes as well as inside vesicles. Mouse dendritic cells exposed to VLPs displayed classic morphological changes associated with activation including the extensive formation of dendrites. Our findings demonstrate that plant-made VLPs bearing influenza HA trimers are morphologically stable over time and raise the possibility that these VLPs may interact with and activate antigen-presenting cells in a manner similar to the intact virus. Highlights Analysis of a plant made VLP vaccine candidate using cryo-EM and tomography. 99.9% of the HA trimers are on discoid and ovoid-shaped particles. VLPs remain structurally stable for over 12 months while kept at 4 °C. VLPs bind to plasma membrane and are internalized similarly to intact virus. Mouse dendritic cells undergo morphological changes indicative activation.
유료 다운로드의 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 신규 회원가입, 로그인, 유료 구매 등이 필요할 수 있습니다. 해당 사이트에서 발생하는 귀하의 모든 정보활동은 NDSL의 서비스 정책과 무관합니다.
원문복사신청을 하시면, 일부 해외 인쇄학술지의 경우 외국학술지지원센터(FRIC)에서
무료 원문복사 서비스를 제공합니다.
NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 위의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니 담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.
- 이 논문과 함께 출판된 논문 + 더보기