Multi-plane, multi-joint lower extremity support moments during a rapid deceleration task: Implications for knee loading
Abstract The principle of lower limb support, and the contribution of hip, knee and ankle moments to an overall limb support strategy for an impact-like, rapid deceleration movement may help explain individual moment magnitude changes, thereby providing insight into how injury might occur or be avoided. Twenty subjects performed single limb, impact-like, deceleration landings at three different knee flexion angles in the range of 0–25, 25–50 and 50–75°. Kinematic and kinetic measures identified hip, knee and ankle moment contribution to limb support moments (LSMs) in three planes. Repeated measures ANOVA compared LSMs and the contribution of individual joint moments at initial contact (IC) and 50 ms after. There were no significant differences in the overall LSMs at IC in any plane when the deeper knee flexion landings (25–50° and 50–75°) were compared to the 0–25° landing position but there were significant changes in the 50 ms period after IC. There were greater overall extensor LSMs, less resistance to medial opening of the knee and decreased support against internal tibia rotation when landing in greater knee flexion. The role of individual joint moments changed rapidly in the 50 ms period after initial landing; and, the relative contribution of the hip and ankle moments depended on the degree of limb flexion at landing. Analyses of individual joint moments emphasized the critical role that the hip joint moments have in balancing potentially injurious knee moments in all three planes for all three landing conditions. Highlights LSM’s are the combination of knee hip and ankle moments to limb support. Greater extensor LSMs occur with greater knee flexion. Less resistance to valgus stress occurs with greater knee flexion. Less support against tibial internal rotation occurs with greater knee flexion. Hip moments of force play a critical role in balancing multiplanar knee moments.
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