Quantification of DNA damage products by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in lung cell lines and prevention effect of thyme antioxidants on oxidative induced DNA damage
Abstract Lung cancer has a high treatment cost and poor prognosis in comparison to other types of cancers. This work was involved in studying oxidative DNA base damage inhibition. Accordingly, standard carvacrol, thymol, thymoquinone with water and water-methanol extract of thyme ( Origanum vulgare L. subsp . hirtum (link.) Ietswaart), thyme oil and thyme water were prepared and investigated for their efficacy to inhibit DNA oxidative damage formed by H 2 O 2 in malignant lung cells (A549). The antioxidant capacity by ABTS assay was 271.73 ± 11.45 mg trolox equivalent/mL for thyme oil. HPLC analysis was carried out to determine the contents of different thyme extracts, results showing the presence of carvacrol, thymol, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin and rosmarinic acid in water and water-methanol extracts while only carvacrol and thymol were found in thyme oil and thyme water. After DNA isolation from the cultured cells, the formed oxidative induced DNA damage products were analysed using GC–MS/MS. It was proven that the antioxidants in the cell culture media have succeeded to inhibit oxidative DNA base damage. Thymoquinone was shown to be the best protectant antioxidant among other antioxidants against the formation of oxidative DNA damage, whereas water-methanol extract of thyme was the best among the plant-sourced samples. Thymoquinone and thyme water-methanol extract were investigated for their efficacy on cultured healthy lung cells (BEAS-2B), and it was proven that they are efficient in protection against the oxidation of DNA of healthy lung cells too. Highlights Antioxidants and plant extracts were investigated for preventing DNA damage. Oxidative damage to DNA was studied in healthy and malignant lung cells. Carvacrol, thymol, thymoquinone and thyme extracts were the targeted objects. Antioxidants particularly thymoquinone impeded the DNA damage products formation. Thyme extracts particularly water-methanol extract impeded the damage too. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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