On the stability efficiency of anchorage self-tapping screws: Ex vivo experiments on miniscrew implants used in orthodontics
Abstract Background The clinical success of orthodontic miniscrews is strictly related to primary stability, which depends on bone viscoelastic properties too. In this study, we evaluated the short time mechanical response of native bone to miniscrews, by a laboratory test based on dynamic loading. Methods Thirty-six segments of porcine ribs were first scanned by cone-beam computerized tomography to obtain insertion-site cortical thickness, cortical and marrow bone density. Twelve different types of miniscrews were implanted in the bone samples to evaluate the elastic compliance of the implants in response to a point force applied at the screw head normally to the screw axis. The compliance was measured dynamically in a Dynamic Mechanical Analysis apparatus as the Fourier Response Function between the signals of displacement and force. The measurements were repeated in five days successive to the insertion of the miniscrew. Findings The elastic compliance was positively related to observation timepoints, but it was not related neither to the screw type nor to the value of the insertion torque. Interpretation Stability behavior is significantly related to the short time response of native bone rather than to the screw design or the insertion torque values. Highlights A dynamic analysis is necessary to test a viscoelastic material such the bone. Geometry and insertion torque did not influence the early stability of miniscrews. In the initial period after miniscrew placement a torque loss of 38% can be expected.
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