Association of antidiabetic medication use, cognitive decline, and risk of cognitive impairment in older people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the population‐based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging
Objective To determine the cross‐sectional and longitudinal associations between diabetes treatment type and cognitive outcomes among type II diabetics. Methods We examined the association between metformin use, as compared to other diabetic treatment (ie, insulin, other oral medications, and diet/exercise) and cognitive test performance and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis among 508 cognitively unimpaired at baseline type II diabetics enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. We created propensity scores to adjust for treatment effects. We used multivariate linear and logistic regression models to investigate the cross‐sectional association between treatment type and cognitive test z scores, respectively. Mixed effects models and competing risk regression models were used to determine the longitudinal association between treatment type and change in cognitive test z scores and risk of developing incident MCI. Results In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, body mass index, APOE ε4, insulin treatment, medical comorbidities, number of medications, duration of diabetes, and propensity score, we did not observe an association between metformin use and cognitive test performance. Additionally, we did not observe an association between metformin use and cognitive test performance over time (median = 3.7‐year follow‐up). Metformin was associated with an increased risk of MCI (subhazard ratio (SHR) = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.64, 4.63, P P = .009) and insulin (SHR = 3.17; 95% CI = 1.27, 7.92; P = .014) use were also associated with risk of MCI diagnosis. Conclusions These findings suggest that metformin use, as compared to management of diabetes with other treatments, is not associated with cognitive test performance. However, metformin was associated with incident MCI diagnosis.
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