Endosomal receptor trafficking: Retromer and beyond
The tubular endolysosomal network is a quality control system that ensures the proper delivery of internalized receptors to specific subcellular destinations in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although retromer was originally described in yeast as a regulator of endosome‐to‐Golgi receptor recycling, mammalian retromer has emerged as a central player in endosome‐to‐plasma membrane recycling of a variety of receptors. Over the past decade, information regarding the mechanism by which retromer facilitates receptor trafficking has emerged, as has the identification of numerous retromer‐associated molecules including the WASH complex, sorting nexins (SNXs) and TBC1d5. Moreover, the recent demonstration that several SNXs can directly interact with retromer cargo to facilitate endosome‐to‐Golgi retrieval has provided new insight into how these receptors are trafficked in cells. The mechanism by which SNX17 cargoes are recycled out of the endosomal system was demonstrated to involve a retromer‐like complex termed the retriever, which is recruited to WASH positive endosomes through an interaction with the COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93 (CCC) complex. Lastly, the mechanisms by which bacterial and viral pathogens highjack this complex sorting machinery in order to escape the endolysosomal system or remain hidden within the cells are beginning to emerge. In this review, we will highlight recent studies that have begun to unravel the intricacies by which the retromer and associated molecules contribute to receptor trafficking and how deregulation at this sorting domain can contribute to disease or facilitate pathogen infection.
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