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Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5, 2018년, pp.512 - 518   SCI SCIE
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Human noroviruses in the faeces of wild birds and rodents—new potential transmission routes

Summa, M. (Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland ) ; Henttonen, H. (Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland ) ; Maunula, L. (Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland ) ;
  • 초록  

    Summary Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading global causes of diarrhoeal diseases and are transmitted mainly from person to person but also through contaminated food, water and fomites. The possible zoonotic nature of NoVs has occasionally been discussed, although the viruses are generally considered to be host‐species‐specific. We investigated whether wild birds and rodents could serve as carriers of HuNoVs, thereby transmitting the virus to humans directly or indirectly by contaminating foods. All samples, 115 avian and 100 rat faeces collected in springs 2009–2013 from dump sites, and 85 faeces from yellow‐necked mice trapped in late autumn 2008 and 2009 after the rodents entered human settlements due to the first night frosts, were screened for HuNoV using real‐time reverse transcription PCR. HuNoVs were detected in 31 (27%) faecal samples of wild birds, in two (2%) faecal samples of rats and in no samples of mice. Most (25) of the positive bird samples and both rat samples contained genogroup II, and six positive bird samples contained genogroup I HuNoV. The avian species shedding faeces containing HuNoVs were identified as gulls and crows using DNA barcoding. Our results show that wildlife, birds and rats in particular, is capable of spreading HuNoVs in the environment.


  • 주제어

    carrier animal .   human norovirus .   reverse transcription PCR .   transmission route.  

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