The prevalence and genetic characteristics of porcine circovirus type 2 and 3 in Korea
Background: Porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD), caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), threaten the pig industry worldwide. Five genotypes of PCV2 were recently identified: PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, PCV2d and PCV2e. In addition, a novel porcine circovirus from a case of a sow with dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome and reproductive failure has been identified based on metagenomic analysis and classified as porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3). Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genetic characteristics of PCV2 and PCV3 in clinical samples. Results: A total of 471 samples (161 tissue samples of lungs and lymph nodes from 34 farms and 310 serum samples from 47 farms) were tested for PCV2. Among them, 171 samples from 59 farms that had been positive for PCV2 were genotyped. Another 690 samples (296 tissue samples of lungs and lymph nodes from 91 farms, 108 samples of aborted foetuses from 26 farms, and 286 serum samples from 47 farms) were tested for PCV3. Based on PCV2 genotyping results, PCV2d was the most prevalent genotype (107 of 171 samples), and co-infections with combinations of PCV2a, 2b and 2d were identified in 48 samples from 17 farms. A total of 14 samples from 11 farms were also positive for both PCV2 and PCV3. For PCV3, 57 samples (9.8%) from 32 farms (23.2%) were positive. Among the 108 aborted foetuses from 26 farms, only 2 samples were positive for PCV3. Based on sequence comparisons, PCV2d shares 89.6-91.0% and 93.2-94.3% homology with PCV2a and PCV2b, respectively; 98.6-100% homology is shared among PCV2d strains. The PCV3 strains identified in this study share 98.0-99.5% homology. Conclusions: Our study concludes that PCV2d has become the most predominant genotype in Korea. PCV3 was also identified in clinical samples, though no significant association with clinical symptoms was observed in PCV3-positive cases.
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