Impact of appropriateness of empiric therapy on outcomes in community-onset bacteremia by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebisella pneumoniae definitively treated with carbapenems
Despite a significant increase of bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the community-setting, information regarding clinical outcomes of inappropriate empiric therapy (IAT) in patients with those infections is limited. A multicenter-retrospective cohort study was conducted in four hospitals. A total of 249 adults were identified to have community-onset bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and definitively treated with carbapenems. According to the appropriateness of empiric therapy, individuals were divided into an appropriate empiric therapy (AT) group (n = 106) and IAT group (n = 143). Patients who received AT showed more severe underlying conditions including underlying solid cancer, healthcare-association and intensive care unit (ICU) care, compared to the IAT group. Primary bacteremia was more commonly found in the AT group than in the IAT group, while urinary tract infection predominated more frequently in the IAT group than in the AT group. Multivariate analysis using propensity score analysis indicated that inappropriateness of empiric therapy was not an independent risk factor for 30-day death. ICU care, respiratory tract infection and underlying liver, renal and connective tissue diseases were significantly associated with mortality. In patients with bloodstream infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae in the community-setting, delay in appropriate therapy was not associated with an increased rate of death if the patients were definitively treated with carbapenems.
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