Silencing HOXD10 by promoter region hypermethylation activates ERK signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma
Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Dysregulation of HomeoboxD10 (HOXD10) was found to suppress or promote cancer progression in different cancer types. The function and regulation of HOXD10 remain unclear in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Primary HCC samples (117), normal liver tissue samples (15), and 13 HCC cell lines (SNU182, SNU449, HBXF344, SMMC7721, Huh7, HepG2, LM3, PLC/PRF/5, BEL7402, SNU387, SNU475, QGY7703, and Huh1) were included in this study. Methylation-specific PCR, flow cytometry, western blot, transwell, siRNA, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were employed. Results HOXD10 was methylated in 76.9% (90/117) of human primary HCC samples. HOXD10 methylation was significantly associated with vessel cancerous embolus, tumor cell differentiation, and the 3-year overall survival rate (all P Conclusion HOXD10 is frequently methylated in human HCC, and the expression of HOXD10 is regulated by promoter region methylation. HOXD10 suppresses HCC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. HOXD10 suppresses human HCC by inhibiting ERK signaling. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13148-017-0412-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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