The Human Polyomavirus Middle and Alternative T-Antigens; Thoughts on Roles and Relevance to Cancer
Approximately 15–20% of human cancer is related to infection, which renders them potentially preventable by antimicrobial or antiviral therapy. Human polyomaviruses (PyVs) are relevant in this regard, as illustrated by the involvement of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in the development of Merkel cell carcinoma. The polyomavirus Small and Large tumor antigen (ST and LT) have been extensively studied with respect to their role in oncogenesis. Recently it was shown that a number of human PyVs, including MCPyV and the trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus (TSPyV), express additional T-antigens called Middle T (MT) and alternative T (ALT). ALT is encoded by ORF5, also known as the alternative T open reading frame (ALTO), which also encodes the second exon of MT, and overlaps out-of-frame with the second exon of LT. Previously, MT was considered unique for oncogenic rodent polyomaviruses, and ALT was still unknown. In this mini-review, we want to point out there are important reasons to explore the involvement of MT and ALT in human cellular transformation. First, just like their rodent equivalents, MT and ALT probably disrupt cellular pathways that control signaling and proliferation. Second, expression of the MT and ALT-encoding ORF5/ALTO characterizes a monophyletic polyomavirus clade that includes human and animal PyVs with known oncogenic potential. And third, ORF5/ALTO is subject to strong positive selection aimed specifically at a short linear motif within MT and ALT that overlaps completely with the RB-binding motif in LT. The latter suggests tight interplay between these T-antigens with possible consequences for cell transformation.
- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00398
- PubMed Central : 저널 > https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852106
- Frontiers Media S.A. : 저널
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