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The Modified Gambling Motivation Scale: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Links With Problem Gambling

Shinaprayoon, Thitapa Carter, Nathan T Goodie, Adam S
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    The Gambling Motivation Scale (GMS), a scale based on self-determination theory, consists of seven motivations: to learn the game, to feel competent, to experience excitement, to socialize, to feel important, to win money, and to continue gambling aimlessly (Chantal, Vallerand, & Vallieres, 1994). The GMS has never been tested with confirmatory factor analysis to determine the appropriate structure of gambling motivation. In the present study, we developed the Modified Gambling Motivation Scale (MGMS) to improve the reading comprehension and psychometrics of the GMS. We also proposed a simpler interpretation of motivation scores than that applied to the previous scoring system. Confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling, and measurement invariance were performed on the GMS and the MGMS, which suggested that six motivations were distinct and important to gambling behaviour: to experience an intellectual challenge (combined motivations to learn and to feel competent), to experience excitement, to socialize, to feel important, to win money, and to continue gambling aimlessly. This six-factor structure of gambling motivation aligns more closely with self-determination theory and removes problems with estimations in the seven-factor structure. The results showed that gamblers who were motivated to experience excitement and to socialize had more problem gambling than did other gamblers.REsumEL'Echelle de motivation envers les jeux de hasard et d'argent, fondEe sur la thEorie de l'autodEtermination, est constituEe de sept motivations : apprendre le jeu, se sentir compEtent, vivre une expErience excitante, socialiser, se sentir important, gagner de l'argent et continuer A jouer pour le simple plaisir (Chantal, Vallerand, et ValliEres, 1994). La structure de l'Echelle n'a jamais EtE soumise A des tests avec analyse factorielle confirmatoire pour dEterminer la structure appropriEe de la motivation du jeu. Dans la prEsente Etude, nous avons mis au point une Echelle modifiEe de motivation de jeu pour amEliorer la comprEhension de la lecture et la psychomEtrie de l'Echelle. Nous proposons Egalement une simplification de l'interprEtation des pointages de motivation par rapport au systEme prEcEdent. L'analyse factorielle confirmatoire, la modElisation de l'Equation structurelle et l'invariance de mesure ont EtE rEalisEes sur les deux Echelles de motivation, et les rEsultats dEmontrent que six motivations Etaient distinctes et importantes pour le comportement du jeu. Il s'agissait des motivations relatives au dEfi intellectuel (combinEes A des motivations d'apprendre et de se sentir compEtent), de vivre une expErience excitante, de socialiser, de se sentir important, de gagner de l'argent et de continuer A jouer pour le simple plaisir. Cette structure de motivation envers les jeux A six facteurs correspond davantage A la thEorie de l'autodEtermination et supprime les problEmes d'estimation avec la structure A sept facteurs. Les rEsultats ont montrE que les joueurs qui Etaient motivEs A vivre une expErience excitante et A socialiser avaient plus de problEmes de jeux compulsifs.


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