Simultaneous mating disruption of two Grapholita species in apple orchards
Abstract Two Grapholita species ( G. molesta and G. dimorpha ) cause serious losses in apple production by means of direct fruit damage and destruction. These two congeners occurred at similar seasons in the same orchards. Furthermore, the two species occurred in similar population sizes in apple orchards, though G. molesta occurred much more in total occurrence density than did G. dimorpha in a pear orchard. The two species share two major sex pheromone components, ( Z )-8-dodecenyl acetate ( Z 8-12:Ac) and ( E )-8-dodecenyl acetate ( E 8-12:Ac), but differ with regard to the relative mixture ratio necessary to create conditions of maximal attraction. To develop a simultaneous mating disruption (SMD), a mass ratio of 95:5 of Z 8-12:Ac and E 8-12:Ac was selected due to its high cross-calling activity and subsequent high mating disruption against both species. When the mixture was applied to orchards, it resulted in significant mating disruption against both species. However, mating disruption efficacy was slightly higher in G. dimorpha than in G. molesta . Application dose and dispenser type affected efficacy duration of SMD. In addition, the high density occurrence of G. molesta significantly reduced the SMD efficacy. Using a wax-type of dispenser, an application of SMD in 100 g per hectare dispersed in early spring recorded >90% mating disruption efficacy through the entire growing season against both Grapholita species. Highlights Two Grapholita species share major sex pheromone components. Simultaneous mating disruption (SMD) has been devised using cross-attracting sex pheromone composition. SMD application resulted in >90% mating disruption against both species. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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