A novel herbal product based on Piper betle and Sphaeranthus indicus essential oils: Toxicity, repellent activity and impact on detoxifying enzymes GST and CYP450 of Aedes aegypti Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)
Abstract Fresh leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asterales: Asteraceae), commonly known as betel leaves and East Indian globe thistle, respectively, were harvested and steam distilled for the extraction of P. betle and S. indicus crude volatile oils (Pb-CVO and Si-CVO, respectively). LC 50 calculated on 3 rd instar larvae of dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae) was 42.17 ppm for PbSi-CVO (i.e., herbal formulation based on the EOs of P. betle and S. indicus ). The larval and pupal duration were significantly longer post-treatment with 100 ppm of PbSi-CVO, if compared to control. We observed that PbSi-CVO significantly altered the detoxifying enzymes GST and CYP450 compared to the expression of control. Sub-lethal concentrations of PbSi-CVO showed strong repellent properties against dengue mosquitoes, without adverse reactions on the volunteers experiencing the repellent assays. Lastly, the adulticidal activity of PbSi-CVO was studied. Overall, our study outlined that this herbal product represents a promising candidate for the development of botanical based adulticidal agents. Highlights Bio-formulation of EOs extracted from the leaves P. betle and S. indicus were tested on Ae. aegypti . PbSi-CVO reduced the fitness of Ae. aegypti and inhibited detoxifying enzymes. Developmental changes in larval and pupal durations, along with toxic and repellent activity on adults, were observed. PbSi-CVO EO formulation represents a promising botanical-based mosquitocidal agent. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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