Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) 기법을 이용한 인간 생식세포 및 착상전 배아의 유전이상 검색
Detection of genetic abnormalities in human sperm, oocytes, and preimplantation embryos using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
Tremendous progress has been made over the past quarter-century studying the genetics of gametogenesis and the resulting gametes and embryos. Studies merging molecular techniques and conventional cytogenetics are now beginning to bridge the gap between what we have learned about the meiotic process in males and females and what we know of the mitotic chromosomes of zygotes. Numerical abnormalities in sperm, oocytes and embryo can now diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). "At risk" couples can, therefore, have only unaffected embryos replaced in the sterus and avoid the possibility of terminating a pregnancy that might only be diagnosed as affected later gestation. Single-cell genetic analysis has also provided powerful tools for studying genetic defects arising during early human development. Recent studies of sperms, oocytes and cleavage-stage human embryos have revealed an unexpectedly high incidence. These genetic abnormalities are likely to contribute to early pregnancy loss and have important implications for improving pregnancy rates in infertile couples by assisted reproduction. The widespread use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) awaits further documentatio of safety and accuracy. Other issues also must be addressed. First, the ethical issues regarding germ cell and embryo screening must be addressed including what diseases are serious enough to warrant the procedure. Another concern is the use of this technology for non-genetic disorders such as gender selection. Finally, the experimental nature of these procedure must continually be discussed with patients, and long-term follow-up studies must be undertaken. Development of more accurate and less expensive assays coupled with improved assisted reproductive technology success rates may make PGD a more widely use clinical tool. The future awaits these development.velopment.
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