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Water research 42건

  1. [해외논문]   Editorial Board  


    Water research v.141 ,pp. ii - ii , 2018 , 0043-1354 ,

    초록

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  2. [해외논문]   One-year operation of 1000-L modularized microbial fuel cell for municipal wastewater treatment  

    Liang, Peng (Corresponding author. ) , Duan, Rui (Corresponding author. ) , Jiang, Yong (Corresponding author.) , Zhang, Xiaoyuan , Qiu, Yong , Huang, Xia
    Water research v.141 ,pp. 1 - 8 , 2018 , 0043-1354 ,

    초록

    Abstract This study constructed a 1000 L modularized MFC system, the largest volume so far, to treat practical municipal wastewater. This MFC system was operated under two different water flow connections in two municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTP) for more than one year to test their treating abilities for wastewater with both low (average 80 mg L −1 ) and high initial COD concentration (average 250 mg L −1 ). The COD concentration in the effluent from the MFC system remained below 50 mg L −1 with a removal rate of 70–90%, which stably met the level A of the first class in discharge standard of pollutants for MWTP of China. A maximum power density of 125 W m −3 (7.58 W m −2 ) was generated when the MFC system was fed with artificial wastewater, while it lay in a range of 7–60 W m −3 (0.42–3.64 W m −2 ) when treating municipal wastewater. The energy recovery of 0.033 ± 0.005 kWh per m 3 of municipal wastewater was achieved, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h. Highlights Scaled-up (1000 L) MFC consisted of 50 modules was operated for a year. The MFC was applied to treat artificial and real municipal wastewater. Concentration of COD released was below 50 mg L −1 with a removal rate of 70–90%. The maximum power density harvested from municipal wastewater was 7–60 W m −3 . Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  3. [해외논문]   Denitrifying sulfur conversion-associated EBPR: Effects of temperature and carbon source on anaerobic metabolism and performance  

    Guo, Gang (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China ) , Wu, Di (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China ) , Ekama, George A. (Water Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa ) , Hao, Tianwei (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China ) , Mackey, Hamish Robert (Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar ) , Chen, Guanghao (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China)
    Water research v.141 ,pp. 9 - 18 , 2018 , 0043-1354 ,

    초록

    Abstract The recently developed Denitrifying Sulfur conversion-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR) process has demonstrated simultaneous removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus with minimal sludge production in the treatment of saline/brackish wastewater. Its performance, however, is sensitive to operating and environmental conditions. In this study, the effects of temperature (20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) and the ratio of influent acetate to propionate (100–0, 75–25, 50-50, 25–75 and 0–100%) on anaerobic metabolism were investigated, and their optimal values/controls for performance optimization were identified. A mature DS-EBPR sludge enriched with approximately 30% sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and 33% sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was used in this study. The anaerobic stoichiometry of this process was insensitive to temperature or changes in the carbon source. However, an increase in temperature from 20 to 35 °C accelerated the kinetic reactions of the functional bacteria (i.e. SRB and SOB) and raised the energy requirement for their anaerobic maintenance, while a moderate temperature (25–30 °C) resulted in better P removal (≥93%, 18.6 mg P/L removal from total 20 mg P/L in the influent) with a maximum sulfur conversion of approximately 16 mg S/L. These results indicate that the functional bacteria are likely to be mesophilic. When a mixed carbon source (75–25 and 50-50% acetate to propionate ratios) was supplied, DS-EBPR achieved a stable P removal (≥89%, 17.8 mg P/L for 400 mg COD/L in the influent) with sulfur conversions at around 23 mg S/L, suggesting the functional bacteria could effectively adapt to changes in acetate or propionate as the carbon source. The optimal temperatures or carbon source conditions maximized the functional bacteria competition against glycogen-accumulating organisms by favoring their activity and synergy. Therefore, the DS-EBPR process can be optimized by setting the temperature in the appropriate range (25–30 °C) and/or manipulating influent carbon sources. Highlights The effects of temperature and carbon source on the DS-EBPR process are studied. The competition between functional bacteria and GAOs is partially revealed. The functional bacteria appear to be mesophilic. Mixed carbon sources induce a stable sulfur conversion-driven P removal. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  4. [해외논문]   Occurrence, characterisation and fate of (nano)particulate Ti and Ag in two Norwegian wastewater treatment plants  

    Polesel, Fabio (DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark ) , Farkas, Julia (SINTEF Ocean, Brattørkaia 17C, 7010 Trondheim, Norway ) , Kjos, Marianne (SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Postboks 4760 Torgarden, 7465 Trondheim, Norway ) , Almeida Carvalho, Patricia (SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Postboks 4760 Torgarden, 7465 Trondheim, Norway ) , Flores-Alsina, Xavier (Process and Systems Engineering Center (PROSYS), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads, Building 229, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark ) , Gernaey, Krist V. (Process and Systems Engineering Center (PROSYS), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads, Building 229, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark ) , Hansen, Steffen Foss (DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark ) , Pló (DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark ) , sz, Benedek Gy (SINTEF Ocean, Brattørkaia 17C, 7010 Trondheim, No) , Booth, Andy M.
    Water research v.141 ,pp. 19 - 31 , 2018 , 0043-1354 ,

    초록

    Abstract Due to their widespread application in consumer products, elemental titanium (e.g., titanium dioxide, TiO 2 ) and silver (Ag), also in nanoparticulate form, are increasingly released from households and industrial facilities to urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A seven-day sampling campaign was conducted in two full-scale WWTPs in Trondheim (Norway) employing only primary treatment. We assessed the occurrence and elimination of Ti and Ag, and conducted size-based fractionation using sequential filtration of influent samples to separate particulate, colloidal and dissolved fractions. Eight-hour composite influent samples were collected to assess diurnal variations in total Ti and Ag influx. Measured influent Ti concentrations (up to 290 μg L −1 ) were significantly higher than Ag ( −1 ), being mostly associated with suspended solids (>0.7 μm). Removal efficiencies ≥70% were observed for both elements, requiring for one WWTP to account for the high Ti content (∼2 g L −1 ) in the flocculant. Nano- and micron-sized Ti particles were observed with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in influent, effluent and biosolids, while Ag nanoparticles were detected in biosolids only. Diurnal profiles of influent Ti were correlated to flow and pollutant concentration patterns (especially total suspended solids), with peaks during the morning and/or evening and minima at night, indicating household discharges as predominant source. Irregular profiles were exhibited by influent Ag, with periodic concentration spikes suggesting short-term discharges from one or few point sources (e.g., industry). Influent Ti and Ag dynamics were reproduced using a disturbance scenario generator model, and we estimated per capita loads of Ti (42–45 mg cap −1 d −1 ) and Ag (0.11 mg cap −1 d −1 ) from households as well as additional Ag load (14–22 g d −1 ) from point discharge. This is the first study to experimentally and mathematically describe short-term release dynamics and dry-weather sources of emissions of Ti and Ag in municipal WWTPs and receiving environments. Highlights Ti and Ag were measured in two Norwegian WWTPs with primary sewage treatment. Removal efficiencies for Ti and Ag were >70%, with high Ti content in flocculant. Influent Ti and Ag were correlated with TSS and P, respectively. Influent and effluent contained Ti NPs, biosolids contained both Ti and Ag NPs. Per capita Ti, Ag loads determined and dynamic profiles mathematically reproduced. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  5. [해외논문]   The dependence of chlorine decay and DBP formation kinetics on pipe flow properties in drinking water distribution  

    Zhao, Yingying (College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China ) , Yang, Y. Jeffrey (U.S.EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA ) , Shao, Yu (College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China ) , Neal, Jill (U.S.EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA ) , Zhang, Tuqiao (College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China)
    Water research v.141 ,pp. 32 - 45 , 2018 , 0043-1354 ,

    초록

    Abstract Simultaneous chlorine decay and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation have been discussed extensively because of their regulatory and operational significance. This study further examines chemical reaction variability in the water quality changes under various hydrodynamic conditions in drinking water distribution. The variations of kinetic constant for overall chlorine decay ( k E ) and trihalomethane (THM) formation were determined under stagnant to turbulent flows using three devices of different wall demand and two types of natural organic matters (NOM) in water. The results from the comparative experiments and modeling analyses show the relative importance of wall demand ( k w ), DBP-forming chlorine decay ( k D ), and other bulk demand ( k b ' ) for pipe flows of Re = 0–52500. It is found that chlorine reactivity of virgin NOM is the overriding factor. Secondly, for tap water NOM of lower reactivity, pipe flow properties ( Re or u ) can significantly affect k E , the THM yield ( T ), formation potential ( Y ), and the time to reach the maximum THM concentration ( t max ) through their influence on kinetic ratio k D ( k b ' + k w ) . These observations, corroborating with turbidity variations during experiments, cannot be explained alone by chlorine dispersion to and from the pipe wall. Mass exchanges through deposition and scale detachment, most likely being flow-dependent, may have contributed to the overall chlorine decay and DBP formation rates. Thus for the simultaneous occurrence of chlorine decay and DBP formation, model considerations of NOM reactivity, pipe types (wall demand), flow hydraulics, and their interactions are essential. Highlights Kinetic variability of the water quality changes responding to hydrodynamics is examined. The mechanism relies on NOM reactivity, wall demand, flow hydraulics, and their interactions. Mass exchanges through scale are most likely the other mechanism depending on the flow velocity. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  6. [해외논문]   Occurrence, genotyping, and health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational lakes in Tianjin, China  

    Xiao, Shumin (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, PR China ) , Yin, Pengna (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, PR China ) , Zhang, Yan (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, PR China ) , Zhao, Xiaoyun (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, PR China ) , Sun, Liping (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, PR China ) , Yuan, Hongying (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, PR China ) , Lu, Jingfang (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, PR China ) , Hu, Sike (School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, PR China)
    Water research v.141 ,pp. 46 - 56 , 2018 , 0043-1354 ,

    초록

    Abstract Cryptosporidium and Giardia are critical parasites in the etiology of diarrhea worldwide, and often cause waterborne outbreaks. The presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational lakes was investigated with molecular characterization, and a comprehensive quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of protozoan infections was performed, considering multiple exposure pathways, differences in age, sex, and disease severity, and the genotypes of the protozoa. Forty-three (82.7%) and 51 (98.1%) water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, respectively, with average counts of 3.65 oocysts/10 L and 12.58 cysts/10 L, respectively. Six Cryptosporidium species and three Giardia lamblia assemblages were confirmed with molecular analyses. The protozoan concentration was significantly associated with water turbidity, but not with the total coliform numbers. Swimming in the lakes entailed the highest incidence risk of 5.72 × 10 −4 per person per year (pppy) (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03–43.33 × 10 −4 ) for Cryptosporidium and 4.04 × 10 −4 pppy (95% CI: 0.01–32.66 × 10 −4 ) for Giardia , whereas wading entailed the lowest risk (2.20 × 10 −4 and 1.70 × 10 −4 pppy, respectively). The annual burdens attributable to recreational-water-associated cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis were 3.44 (95% CI: 0.04–23.51) and 1.81 (95% CI: 0.01–12.96) disability-adjusted life years per 1,000,000 individuals per year, respectively. Children were more likely to have an individual disease burden than adults, and males were more likely than females. Sensitivity analysis highlighted the great importance of controlling the proportion of exposed individuals and reducing the frequency of exposure. The methodology and results of this study will allow us to better evaluate and reduce the burden of Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia infections associated with recreational water use in China and other countries. Highlights Protozoan incidence, genotypes and risks were studied simultaneously. All detected protozoa except, C. fragile, are potentially infectious to humans. Genotypes, age, sex, and disease severity were considered in the QMRA. Protozoan disease burden violated the WHO threshold of 10 −6 DALYs pppy. Fraction of the population exposed and exposure frequency most affected the risk. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  7. [해외논문]   Trimeprazine is enantioselectively degraded by an activated sludge in ready biodegradability test conditions  

    Escuder-Gilabert, Laura (Departamento de Química Analítica, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain ) , Martí (Departamento de Química Analítica, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain ) , n-Biosca, Yolanda (Departamento de Química Analítica, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain ) , Perez-Baeza, Mireia (Departamento de Química Analítica, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain ) , Sagrado, Salvador (Departamento de Química Analítica, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain) , Medina-Herná , ndez, Marí , a José
    Water research v.141 ,pp. 57 - 64 , 2018 , 0043-1354 ,

    초록

    Abstract A great number of available pharmaceuticals are chiral compounds. Although they are usually manufactured as racemic mixtures, they can be enantioselectively biodegraded as a result of microbial processes. In this paper, a biodegradability assay in similar conditions to those recommended in OECD tests of enantiomers of trimeprazine (a phenothiazine employed as a racemate) is carried out. Experiments were performed in batch mode using a minimal salts medium inoculated with an activated sludge (collected from a Valencian Waste Water Treatment Plant, WWTP) and supplemented with the racemate. The concentration of the enantiomers of trimeprazine were monitored by means of a chiral HPLC method using a cellulose-based chiral stationary phase and 0.5 M NaClO 4 /acetonitrile (60:40, v/v) mobile phases. Experiments were performed at three concentration levels of the racemate. In parallel, the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was measured to control the biomass growth and to connect it with enantioselectivity. The calculated enantiomeric fractions (EF) offer the first evidence of enantioselective biodegradation of trimeprazine. A simplified Monod equation was used as a curve fitting approach for concentration (S), biodegradation (BD), and for the first time, EF experimental data in order to expand the usefulness of the results. Precision studies on S (repeatability conditions) and, for the first time, EF (intermediate precision conditions) were also performed. Highlights First evidence of enantioselective biodegradation of trimeprazine. Optical density at 600 nm, to control the biomass growth, connected with enantioselectivity. Enantiomeric fraction-time profiles modelled for the first time. Enantiomeric fraction precision performed for the first time under intermediate precision conditions. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  8. [해외논문]   Transport of trace organic compounds through novel forward osmosis membranes: Role of membrane properties and the draw solution  

    Sauchelli, Marc (Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain ) , Pellegrino, Giuseppe (Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain ) , D'Haese, Arnout (Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, University of Ghent, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium ) , Rodrí (Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain ) , guez-Roda, Ignasi (Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain) , Gernjak, Wolfgang
    Water research v.141 ,pp. 65 - 73 , 2018 , 0043-1354 ,

    초록

    Abstract Forward osmosis (FO) offers to be a very promising technology for the removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from contaminated wastewater, and with the recent developments in FO membranes, the effect of both a higher water flux and reverse salt flux on the rejection of TrOCs needs to be explored. In this study two novel thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with greater water permeability and selectivity than the benchmark cellulose tri-acetate (CTA) membrane were compared at bench-scale in terms of TrOCs permeability. By probing the solute-membrane interactions that dictate the transport of TrOCs through the two membranes in the absence and presence of a draw solution, several conclusions were drawn. Firstly, steric hindrance is the main TrOCs transport -limiting mechanism through TFC membranes unless the negative membrane surface charge is significant, in which case, electrostatic interactions can dominate over steric hindrance. Secondly, the increase in ionic strength induced by the draw solution in the vicinity of and perhaps inside the membrane seems to favour the rejection of TrOCs by “shrinking” the membrane pores or by “shielding” the negative surface charge. Lastly, during FO operation, solute concentration polarisation becomes detrimental when working at high water fluxes, whereas the reverse solute flux has no direct impact on the transport of TrOCs through the membrane. Highlights Permeability of TrOCs through two novel TFC-FO membranes differed significantly. Steric hindrance was the dominant rejection mechanism for the TFC-1 membrane. Electric repulsion and attraction governed TrOC transport through TFC-2. Partitioning of draw solute resulted in a pore size reduction for TFC-1. On TFC-2 the presence of the draw solute lead to shielding of electric effects. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  9. [해외논문]   Succession of bacterial and fungal communities within biofilms of a chlorinated drinking water distribution system  

    Douterelo, I. (Corresponding author.) , Fish, K.E. , Boxall, J.B.
    Water research v.141 ,pp. 74 - 85 , 2018 , 0043-1354 ,

    초록

    Abstract Understanding the temporal dynamics of multi-species biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDS) is essential to ensure safe, high quality water reaches consumers after it passes through these high surface area reactors. This research studied the succession characteristics of fungal and bacterial communities under controlled environmental conditions fully representative of operational DWDS. Microbial communities were observed to increase in complexity after one month of biofilm development but they did not reach stability after three months. Changes in cell numbers were faster at the start of biofilm formation and tended to decrease over time, despite the continuing changes in bacterial community composition. Fungal diversity was markedly less than bacterial diversity and had a lag in responding to temporal dynamics. A core-mixed community of bacteria including Pseudomonas , Massillia and Sphingomonas and the fungi Acremonium and Neocosmopora were present constantly and consistently in the biofilms over time and conditions studied. Monitoring and managing biofilms and such ubiquitous core microbial communities are key control strategies to ensuring the delivery of safe drinking water via the current ageing DWDS infrastructure. Highlights Succession of multi-species biofilms was studied under representative conditions. A core fungal-bacterial community was observed continuously over time. Bacteria responded rapidly while fungi had a lag in responding to biofilm dynamics. Core microorganisms are a potential tool to develop new control strategies. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  10. [해외논문]   Evaluation of the structural morphology of starch-graft-poly(acrylic acid) on its scale-inhibition efficiency  

    Yu, Wei (Corresponding author.) , Wang, Yawen , Li, Aimin , Yang, Hu
    Water research v.141 ,pp. 86 - 95 , 2018 , 0043-1354 ,

    초록

    Abstract The development of phosphorus-free and biodegradable scale inhibitors has been paid considerable attention. Two series of starch- graft -poly(acrylic acid) (St -g- PAA) samples with different grafting ratios and grafted-chain distributions, that is, the number and length of grafted PAA chains on the starch backbone, were designed and prepared in this study. Fourier transform infrared and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were used to further characterize the molecular structures of the St -g- PAAs. In addition to dose, the effects of the structural morphologies of St -g- PAA, namely, grafting ratio and grafted-chain distribution, on the scale-inhibition performance against calcium carbonate were investigated systematically. Structural morphology significantly influenced the scale-inhibition performance of St -g- PAA. St -g- PAA with relatively low grafting ratio (≤97%) displayed better scale-inhibition effect than samples with similar grafted-chain distributions. Meanwhile, under the similar grafting ratios, samples with higher number of branched chains with shorter grafted chains displayed better antiscaling performance. Thus, higher scale-inhibition rate and lower corresponding optimal dose were obtained. Different scale-inhibition mechanisms were involved in the effects of the structural morphology. These mechanisms were investigated in detail from the molecular levels using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Highlights St- g -PAA is a non-phosphorus, low toxic, and biodegradable “Green” antiscalant. The structural morphology of St- g -PAA has great effects on its scale inhibition. St- g -PAA with relatively low grafting ratio owns higher scale-inhibition efficiency. St- g -PAA with more grafted-chain number has better scale-inhibition performance. St- g -PAAs with different structural morphologies obey different inhibition mechanisms. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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