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American journal of physical anthropology 24건

  1. [해외논문]   Issue information – table of contents  


    American journal of physical anthropology v.166 no.3 ,pp. NA , 2018 , 0002-9483 ,

    초록

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Cover & Editorial Board  


    American journal of physical anthropology v.166 no.3 ,pp. 497 - 498 , 2018 , 0002-9483 ,

    초록

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Sleep and nesting behavior in primates: A review  

    Fruth, Barbara (Centre for Research and Conservation/KMDA, Antwerp, Belgium) , Tagg, Nikki (Centre for Research and Conservation/KMDA, Antwerp, Belgium) , Stewart, Fiona (Faculty of Science/School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
    American journal of physical anthropology v.166 no.3 ,pp. 499 - 509 , 2018 , 0002-9483 ,

    초록

    Abstract Sleep is a universal behavior in vertebrate and invertebrate animals, suggesting it originated in the very first life forms. Given the vital function of sleep, sleeping patterns and sleep architecture follow dynamic and adaptive processes reflecting trade‐offs to different selective pressures. Here, we review responses in sleep and sleep‐related behavior to environmental constraints across primate species, focusing on the role of great ape nest building in hominid evolution. We summarize and synthesize major hypotheses explaining the proximate and ultimate functions of great ape nest building across all species and subspecies; we draw on 46 original studies published between 2000 and 2017. In addition, we integrate the most recent data brought together by researchers from a complementary range of disciplines in the frame of the symposium “Burning the midnight oil” held at the 26th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Chicago, August 2016, as well as some additional contributors, each of which is included as a “stand‐alone” article in this “Primate Sleep” symposium set. In doing so, we present crucial factors to be considered in describing scenarios of human sleep evolution: (a) the implications of nest construction for sleep quality and cognition; (b) the tree‐to‐ground transition in early hominids; (c) the peculiarities of human sleep. We propose bridging disciplines such as neurobiology, endocrinology, medicine, and evolutionary ecology, so that future research may disentangle the major functions of sleep in human and nonhuman primates, namely its role in energy allocation, health, and cognition.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Nocturnal activity in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for flexible sleeping patterns and insights into human evolution  

    Tagg, Nikki (Antwerp Zoo Centre for Research and Conservation, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Belgium) , McCarthy, Maureen (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany) , Dieguez, Paula (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany) , Bocksberger, Gaë (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany) , lle (Antwerp Zoo Centre for Research and Conservation, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Belgium) , Willie, Jacob (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany) , Mundry, Roger (School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom) , Stewart, Fiona (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany) , Arandjelovic, Mimi (Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New H) , Widness, Jane , Landsmann, Anja , Agbor, Anthony , Angedakin, Samuel , Ayimisin, Ayuk Emmanuel , Bessone, Mattia , Brazzola, Gregory , Corogenes, Katherine , Deschner, Tobias , Dilambaka, Emmanuel , Eno‐ , Nku, Manasseh , Eshuis, Henk , Goedmakers, Annemarie , Granjon, Anne‐ , Cé , line , Head, Josephine , Hermans, Veerle , Jones, Sorrel , Kadam, Parag , Kambi, Mohamed , Langergraber, Kevin E. , Lapeyre, Vincent , Lapuente, Juan , Lee, Kevin , Leinert, Vera , Maretti, Giovanna , Marrocoli, Sergio , Meier, Amelia , Nicholl, Sonia , Normand, Emmanuelle , Ormsby, Lucy Jayne , Piel, Alex , Robinson, Orume , Sommer, Volker , ter Heegde, Martijn , Tickle, Alexander , Ton, Els , van Schijndel, Joost , Vanleeuwe, Hilde , Vergnes, Virginie , Wessling, Erin , Wittig, Roman M. , Zuberbuehler, Klaus , Kuehl, Hjalmar , Boesch, Christophe
    American journal of physical anthropology v.166 no.3 ,pp. 510 - 529 , 2018 , 0002-9483 ,

    초록

    Abstract Objectives We investigated occurrences and patterns of terrestrial nocturnal activity in wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) and modelled the influence of various ecological predictors on nocturnal activity. Methods Data were extracted from terrestrial camera‐trap footage and ecological surveys from 22 chimpanzee study sites participating in the Pan African Programme: The Cultured Chimpanzee. We described videos demonstrating nocturnal activity, and we tested the effects of the percentage of forest, abundance of predators (lions, leopards and hyenas), abundance of large mammals (buffalos and elephants), average daily temperature, rainfall, human activity, and percent illumination on the probability of nocturnal activity. Results We found terrestrial nocturnal activity to occur at 18 of the 22 study sites, at an overall average proportion of 1.80% of total chimpanzee activity, and to occur during all hours of the night, but more frequently during twilight hours. We found a higher probability of nocturnal activity with lower levels of human activity, higher average daily temperature, and at sites with a larger percentage of forest. We found no effect of the abundance of predators and large mammals, rainfall, or moon illumination. Discussion Chimpanzee terrestrial nocturnal activity appears widespread yet infrequent, which suggests a consolidated sleeping pattern. Nocturnal activity may be driven by the stress of high daily temperatures and may be enabled at low levels of human activity. Human activity may exert a relatively greater influence on chimpanzee nocturnal behavior than predator presence. We suggest that chimpanzee nocturnal activity is flexible, enabling them to respond to changing environmental factors.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   Temporal patterns of chimpanzee loud calls in the Issa Valley, Tanzania: Evidence of nocturnal acoustic behavior in wild chimpanzees  

    Piel, Alex K. (School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom)
    American journal of physical anthropology v.166 no.3 ,pp. 530 - 540 , 2018 , 0002-9483 ,

    초록

    Abstract Objectives Much is known about chimpanzee diurnal call patterns, but far less about night‐time vocal behavior. I deployed a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) system to assess 24‐hr temporal acoustic activity of wild, unhabituated chimpanzees that live in a woodland mosaic habitat similar to hominin landscapes from the Plio‐Pleistocene. A primary aim was to apply findings to our broader understanding to chimpanzee 24‐hr activity patterns, and what implications this may have for reconstructing hominin adaptations to similarly hot, dry, and open landscapes. I also tested whether chimpanzees conform to the acoustic adaptation hypothesis, and produce loud calls during periods of optimal sound transmission. Methods Nine custom‐made solar‐powered acoustic transmission units (SPATUs) recorded continuously for 250 days over 11 months in the Issa Valley, western Tanzania. I complemented acoustic data with environmental data from weather stations as well as behavioral data collected on chimpanzee nest group sizes to assess the relationship between party size and calling. Results Chimpanzees called at all hours of the day and night in both wet and dry seasons, and night and day calls exhibited parallel rates/month, although twilight calls were produced significantly more in the dry, compared to the wet season. Calls were more likely during warmer temperatures and lower humidity. Call rate was positively associated with (nest) party size and counter‐calls exhibited no temporal variation in their origins (similar vs. adjacent valleys). Conclusions Chimpanzees were acoustically active throughout the 24‐hr cycle, although at low rates compared to diurnal activity, revealing night‐time activity in an ape otherwise described as diurnal. Chimpanzee loud calls partially, and weakly, conformed to the acoustic adaptation hypothesis and likely responded to social, rather than environmental factors. Call rates accurately reflect grouping patterns and PAM is demonstrated to be an effective means of remotely assessing activity, especially at times and from places that are difficult to access for researchers.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   Nocturnal behavior by a diurnal ape, the West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), in a savanna environment at Fongoli, Senegal  

    Pruetz, Jill D. (Department of Anthropology, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, 78666)
    American journal of physical anthropology v.166 no.3 ,pp. 541 - 548 , 2018 , 0002-9483 ,

    초록

    Abstract Objectives I report on the nocturnal behavior of Fongoli chimpanzees in a savanna mosaic during different seasons and lunar phases and test the hypothesis that hot daytime temperatures influence activity at night. I predicted that apes would be more active at night during periods of greater lunar illuminosity given diurnal primates’ lack of visual specializations for low‐light conditions and in dry season months when water scarcity exacerbated heat stress. Materials and Methods I observed chimpanzees for 403 hrs on 40 nights between 2007 and 2013 and categorized their activity as social, movement, or vocalization. I scored their activity as occurring after moonrise or before moonset and considered the influence of moon phase (fuller versus darker phases) as well as season on chimpanzee nocturnal behavior in the analyses. Results Results indicate that apes were more active after moonrise or before moonset during fuller moon phases in the dry season but not the wet season. Most night‐time activity involved movement (travel or forage), followed by social behavior, and long‐distance vocal communication. Discussion Animals in highly seasonal habitats often exhibit thermoregulatory adaptations but, like other primates, chimpanzees lack physiological mechanisms to combat thermal stress. This study provides evidence that they may exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid high temperatures in a savanna environment, such as feeding and socializing at night during the hottest time of year and in the brightest moon phases. The results support theories invoking thermal stress as a selective pressure for hominins in open environments where heat would constrain temporal foraging niches, and suggest an adaptability of sleeping patterns in response to external factors.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  7. [해외논문]   Savanna chimpanzees adjust sleeping nest architecture in response to local weather conditions  

    Stewart, Fiona A. (School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF, United Kingdom) , Piel, Alexander K. (School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF, United Kingdom) , Azkarate, Jurgi C. (Hazi Lagun, Arrasate, GI 20500, Spain) , Pruetz, Jill D. (Department of Anthropology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011)
    American journal of physical anthropology v.166 no.3 ,pp. 549 - 562 , 2018 , 0002-9483 ,

    초록

    Abstract Objectives Great ape nests are hypothesized to aid safe, secure sleep via providing thermoregulation or protection from predators and vectors. We aimed to describe and investigate variation in chimpanzee nest architecture across two populations in response to local weather conditions. Materials and Methods We experimentally tested whether nests provide insulation by measuring heat loss within and outside nests, and took detailed measurements of the number, size, and type of materials used in nest building across two dry‐habitat research sites (Fongoli, Senegal, and Issa, Tanzania). We tested application of principal components analysis (PCA) to extract composite quantitative measures of the key components of shape and architecture, before testing how PCs vary across populations with overnight weather conditions that reflect hypothesized thermoregulatory function. Results Heat loss is greater and occurs faster outside of nests. PCA allowed meaningful comparison of nests within and between sites. Nest variation at both sites revealed chimpanzees built thicker nests in cooler conditions and used more broken branches and support in moister conditions. Chimpanzees in Fongoli used more lining and mattress material in colder conditions, whilst in Issa nest depth and support branch size were larger in windier conditions. Discussion Shape and architectural measures reflected insulation and stability of nest structure. Chimpanzees in Fongoli and Issa may achieve the same functional goals by adjusting nest shape and architecture in different ways. These results suggest that wild chimpanzees show flexible building techniques in response to local, overnight weather conditions in making an insulating and stable, supportive platform for sleep.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  8. [해외논문]   Sleep patterns, daytime predation, and the evolution of diurnal sleep site selection in lorisiforms  

    Svensson, Magdalena S. (Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom) , Nekaris, K.A.I. (Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom) , Bearder, Simon K. (Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom) , Bettridge, Caroline M. (Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom) , Butynski, Thomas M. (Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom) , Cheyne, Susan M. (Borneo Nature Foundation, Palangka Raya, Indonesia) , Das, Nabajit (Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom) , de Jong, Yvonne A. (Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom) , Luhrs, Averee M. (Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes Univer) , Luncz, Lydia V. , Maddock, Simon T. , Perkin, Andrew , Pimley, Elizabeth , Poindexter, Stephanie A. , Reinhardt, Kathleen D. , Spaan, Denise , Stark, Danica J. , Starr, Carly R. , Nijman, Vincent
    American journal of physical anthropology v.166 no.3 ,pp. 563 - 577 , 2018 , 0002-9483 ,

    초록

    Abstract Objectives Synthesize information on sleep patterns, sleep site use, and daytime predation at sleep sites in lorisiforms of Asia and Africa (10 genera, 36 species), and infer patterns of evolution of sleep site selection. Materials and methods We conducted fieldwork in 12 African and six Asian countries, collecting data on sleep sites, timing of sleep and predation during daytime. We obtained additional information from literature and through correspondence. Using a phylogenetic approach, we established ancestral states of sleep site selection in lorisiforms and traced their evolution. Results The ancestral lorisiform was a fur‐clinger and used dense tangles and branches/forks as sleep sites. Use of tree holes and nests as sleep sites emerged ∼22 Mya (range 17–26 Mya) in Africa, and use of bamboo emerged ∼11 (7–14) Mya in Asia and later in Africa. Fur clinging and some sleep sites (e.g., tree holes, nests, but not bamboo or dense tangles) show strong phylogenetic signal. Nests are used by Galagoides , Paragalago, Galago and Otolemur ; tree holes by Galago , Paragalago , Sciurocheirus and Perodicticus ; tangles by Nycticebus , Loris , Galagoides, Galago, Euoticus , Otolemur, Perodicticus and Arctocebus ; all but Sciurocheirus and Otolemur additionally sleep on branches/forks. Daytime predation may affect sleep site selection and sleep patterns in some species of Nycticebus , Galago , Galagoides , Otolemur and Perodicticus . Most lorisiforms enter their sleep sites around sunrise and leave around sunset; several are active during twilight or, briefly, during daytime. Conclusion Variations in sleep behavior, sleep patterns and vulnerability to daytime predation provide a window into the variation that was present in sleep in early primates. Overall, lorisiforms use the daytime for sleeping and no species can be classified as cathemeral or polycyclic.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   The cost of deep sleep: Environmental influences on sleep regulation are greater for diurnal lemurs  

    Samson, David R. (Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Mississauga ) , Bray, Joel (School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University ) , Nunn, Charles L. (Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Tempe, AZ)
    American journal of physical anthropology v.166 no.3 ,pp. 578 - 589 , 2018 , 0002-9483 ,

    초록

    Abstract Objectives Primates spend almost half their lives asleep, yet we know little about how evolution has shaped variation in the duration or intensity of sleep (i.e., sleep regulation) across primate species. Our objective was to test hypotheses related to how sleeping site security influences sleep intensity in different lemur species. Methods We used actigraphy and infrared videography to generate sleep measures in 100 individuals (males = 51, females = 49) of seven lemur species (genera: Eulemur , Lemur , Propithecus , and Varecia ) at the Duke Lemur Center in Durham, NC. We also generated experimental data using sleep deprivation for 16 individuals. This experiment used a pair‐wise design for two sets of paired lemurs from each genus, where the experimental pair experienced a sleep deprivation protocol while the control experienced normal sleeping conditions. We calculated a sleep depth composite metric from weighted z scores of three sleep intensity variables. Results We found that, relative to cathemeral lemurs, diurnal Propithecus was characterized by the deepest sleep and exhibited the most disruptions to normal sleep‐wake regulation when sleep deprived. In contrast, Eulemur mongoz was characterized by significantly lighter sleep than Propithecus , and E. mongoz showed the fewest disruptions to normal sleep‐wake regulation when sleep deprived. Security of the sleeping site led to greater sleep depth, with access to outdoor housing linked to lighter sleep in all lemurs that were studied. Conclusions We propose that sleeping site security was an essential component of sleep regulation throughout primate evolution. This work suggests that sleeping site security may have been an important factor associated with the evolution of sleep in early and later hominins.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   Sleep variability and nighttime activity among Tsimane forager‐horticulturalists  

    Yetish, Gandhi (Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America) , Kaplan, Hillard (Economic Science Institute, Chapman University, Orange, California, United States of America ) , Gurven, Michael (Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America)
    American journal of physical anthropology v.166 no.3 ,pp. 590 - 600 , 2018 , 0002-9483 ,

    초록

    Abstract Objectives A common presumption in sleep research is that “normal” human sleep should show high night‐to‐night consistency. Yet, intra‐individual sleep variation in small‐scale subsistence societies has never been studied to test this idea. In this study, we assessed the degree of nightly variation in sleep patterns among Tsimane forager‐horticulturalists in Bolivia, and explored possible drivers of the intra‐individual variability. Methods We actigraphically recorded sleep among 120 Tsimane adults (67 female), aged 18–91, for an average of 4.9 nights per person using the Actigraph GT3X and Philips Respironics Actiwatch 2. We assessed intra‐individual variation using intra‐class correlations and average deviation from each individual's average sleep duration, onset, and offset times (ɛ¯). Results Only 31% of total variation in sleep duration was due to differences among different individuals, with the remaining 69% due to nightly differences within the same individuals. We found no statistically significant differences in Tsimane sleep duration by day‐of‐the‐week. Nightly variation in sleep duration was driven by highly variable sleep onset, especially for men. Nighttime activities associated with later sleep onset included hunting, fishing, housework, and watching TV. Conclusions In contrast to nightly sleep variation in the United States being driven primarily by “sleeping‐in” on weekends, Tsimane sleep variation, while comparable to that observed in the United States, was driven by changing “bedtimes,” independent of day‐of‐the‐week. We propose that this variation may reflect adaptive responses to changing opportunity costs to sleep/nighttime activity.

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