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Molecules and cells 17건

  1. [국내논문]   NeuroD: the predicted and the surprising.  

    Chae, Ji Hyung , Stein, Gretchen H , Lee, Jacqueline E
    Molecules and cells v.18 no.3 ,pp. 271 - 288 , 2004 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    NeuroD (otherwise known as BETA2) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is capable of converting embryonic epidermal cells into fully differentiated neurons in Xenopus embryos. In insulinoma cells, NeuroD can bind and activate the insulin promoter. When NeuroD is deleted in mice, the early differentiating pancreatic endocrine cells and a subset of the neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems die, resulting in cellular deficits in the pancreatic islets, cerebellum, hippocampus and inner ear sensory ganglia. As a consequence, mice become diabetic and display neurological defects including ataxia and deafness. These gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes suggest that NeuroD controls both common and distinct sets of molecules involved in cell survival and differentiation in different tissue types. In this review, we examine what is known about NeuroD and what remains to be answered. Understanding the primary function of NeuroD will be extremely valuable in the diagnosis and cure of the diseases that involve this transcription factor, which plays essential roles in the development and function of the pancreas and the nervous system.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [국내논문]   The gene Pax4 is an essential regulator of pancreatic beta-cell development.  

    Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz
    Molecules and cells v.18 no.3 ,pp. 289 - 294 , 2004 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    The Pax-gene family encodes a group of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a highly conserved DNA-binding motif, the paired domain. Pax proteins are key regulators of vertebrate organogenesis since they play major roles in embryonic pattern formation, cell proliferation and cell differentiation (Chi and Epstein, 2002; Dahl et al., 1997; Dohrman et al., 2000; Epstein et al., 1994). Indeed, mutations in Pax genes lead to profound defects in organisms as diverse as flies, mice and humans (Chi and Epstein, 2002; Dahl et al., 1997). To date, nine mammalian Pax genes are known and these are grouped into five different subclasses according to their structural similarities. One of these subclasses comprises two close homologues, Pax4 and Pax6, that contain a second DNA-binding domain: the homeodomain (Dahl et al., 1997; Dohrman et al., 2000). Previous studies showed that Pax4 is a crucial regulator of mammalian pancreas development since lack of its activity prevents the formation of mature pancreatic insulin-producing (beta) cells (Dohrman et al., 2000; Sosa-Pineda et al., 1997; Wang et al., 2004). Presently, it is not yet clear how Pax4 is specifically required for the development of beta cells. Nonetheless, evidence gathered from recent studies has begun to unravel important aspects of the molecular function of Pax4 in pancreatic endocrine cells. Here, I will try to summarize the results of different efforts aimed at understanding how Pax4 is required for both, beta cell development and beta cell function.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [국내논문]   Application of RAPD and SCAR markers for purity testing of F1 hybrid seed in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum).  

    Jang, Inok , Moon, Ji-Hye , Yoon, Jae Bok , Yoo, Jae-Heung , Yang, Tae Jin , Kim, Yong Jae , Park, Hyo Guen
    Molecules and cells v.18 no.3 ,pp. 295 - 299 , 2004 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    A simpler and better method for purity testing of hybrid pepper seed was developed. The simplest method for extracting genomic DNA, the NaOH method, was chosen. Two RAPD markers identifying male and female parents were also developed, and the PCR products of male- and female-specific RAPD markers were cloned and sequenced. From these sequences, new longer primers were constructed for conversion into SCAR markers. In blind tests the RAPD and SCAR markers were able to reliably detect contaminating exotic seeds. These PCR-based markers are therefore directly applicable for purity testing by seed companies. In addition, the PCR products of the SCAR markers could be identified by direct staining methods such as ethidium bromide and pellet painting without electrophoresis.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지
  4. [국내논문]   Cold-inducible transcription factor, CaCBF, is associated with a homeodomain leucine zipper protein in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).  

    Kim, Sihyun , An, Chung Sun , Hong, Young-Nam , Lee, Kwang-Woong
    Molecules and cells v.18 no.3 ,pp. 300 - 308 , 2004 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    C-Repeat/drought responsive element binding factor (CBF1/DREB1b) is a well known transcriptional activator that is induced at low temperature and in turn induces the CBF regulon (CBF-targeted genes). We have cloned and characterized two CBF1-like cDNAs, CaCBF1A and CaCBF1B, from hot pepper. CaCBF1A and CaCBF1B were not produced in response to mechanical wounding or abscisic acid but were induced by low-temperature stress at 4 degrees . When plants were returned to 25 degrees , their transcript levels of the CBF1-like genes decreased markedly within 40 min. Long-term exposure to chilling resulted in continuous expression of these genes. The critical temperature for induction of CaCBF1A was between 10 and 15 degrees . Low temperature led to its transcription in roots, stems, leaves, fruit without seeds, and apical meristems, and a monoclonal antibody against it revealed a significant increase in CaCBF1A protein by 4 h at 4 degrees . Two-hybrid screening led to the isolation of an homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) protein that interacts with CaCBF1B. Expression of HD-Zip was elevated by low temperature and drought.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [국내논문]   Long term effects of muscle-derived stem cells on leak point pressure and closing pressure in rats with transected pudendal nerves.  

    Lee, Ji Youl , Paik, Soon Young , Yuk, Soon Hong , Lee, Jin Ho , Ghil, Sung Ho , Lee, Sang Sub
    Molecules and cells v.18 no.3 ,pp. 309 - 313 , 2004 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    The survival of muscle-derived cells injected into the urethra and bladder wall was described recently. In this study, we tested whether injections of periurethral muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) and bovine collagen (BC) after denervation of the pudendal nerve could increase leak point pressure (LPP) and closing pressure (CP) in female rats over the long term. S-D rats were anesthetized with halothane and the pudendal nerves transected bilaterally via a dorsal incision in order to denervate the external urethral sphincter. In the collagen and MDSC groups (C & M), injection of collagen or MDSC was made into the proximal urethra after pudendal nerve transection. At 4 and 12 week, visually identified LPP and CP measurements were made using the vertical tilt/intravesical pressure clamp model of stress urinary incontinence. The rats were then sacrificed and urethra harvested for histology. Both LPP and CP were significantly lower in the denervated (D) group at each time compared with the normal (N), C, and M groups, and both LPP and CP in the C and M groups were significantly higher than in the D group at both 4 and 12 weeks. The persistence of MDSC over the period of study was verified by histology. Thus pudendal nerve denervation led to a progressive decline in LPP and CP that was evident at 4 week and persisted to 12 week, and injection of MDSC into the denervated rats led to a long term increase in LPP and CP.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [국내논문]   Site-directed mutagenesis of human brain GABA transaminase: lysine-357 is involved in cofactor binding at the active site.  

    Kim, Dae Won , Yoon, Chang Sik , Eum, Won Sik , Lee, Byung Ryong , An, Jae Jin , Lee, Sun Hwa , Lee, Seung Ree , Ahn, Jee-Yin , Kwon, Oh-Shin , Kang, Tae-Cheon , Won, Moo Ho , Cho, Sung-Woo , Lee, Kil Soo , Park, Jinseu , Choi, Soo Young
    Molecules and cells v.18 no.3 ,pp. 314 - 319 , 2004 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    gamma-Aminobutyrate transaminase (GABA-T), a key enzyme of the GABA shunt, converts the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, to succinic semialdehyde. Although GABA-T is a pivotal factor implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, its function remains to be elucidated. In an effort to clarify the structural and functional roles of specific lysyl residue in human brain GABA-T, we constructed human brain GABA-T mutants, in which the lysyl residue at position 357 was mutated to various amino acids including asparagine (K357N). The purified mutant GABA-T enzymes displayed neither catalytic activity nor absorption bands at 330 and 415 nm that are characteristic of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) covalently linked to the protein. The wild type apoenzyme reconstituted with exogenous PLP had catalytic activity, while the mutant apoenzymes did not. These results indicate that lysine 357 is essential for catalytic function, and is involved in binding PLP at the active site.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지
  7. [국내논문]   Expression of estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor genes in human embryonic stem cells and embryoid bodies.  

    Hong, Seok Ho , Nah, Hee Young , Lee, Young Jin , Lee, Ji Won , Park, Jong Hyuk , Kim, Sun Jong , Lee, Jung Bok , Yoon, Hyun Soo , Kim, Chung Hoon
    Molecules and cells v.18 no.3 ,pp. 320 - 325 , 2004 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and the three germ layers in vivo and in vitro. They are therefore useful in transplantation and tissue engineering. Here, we describe the expression patterns of selected steroid receptor mRNAs - estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha), ER-beta, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and progesterone receptor (PR) - in undifferentiated hESCs and embryoid bodies (EBs) cultured for 2, 4, and 6 d, as assessed by real-time PCR, in order to define the possible influence of steroid hormones on the differentiation of hESCs. These receptor mRNAs were expressed in undifferentiated hESCs and EBs. The expression of PR mRNA only decreased during the differentiation of EBs but not of hESCs. Immunohistochemical analysis gave strong staining of ER-alpha, ER-beta, and GR proteins in the nuclei of hESCs and EBs, whereas PR was not detected. We also examined the potential of these steroid hormones to direct the differentiation of hESCs in vitro. The expression of 11 cell-specific markers representing 3 germ layers and 5 tissue types was used to assess the differentiation of hESCs. We found that certain endodermal marker genes were either only expressed in the estrogen-treated group or their expression was stimulated in that group, suggesting that steroid hormones can control the differentiation of hESCs into various cell types.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [국내논문]   Differential regulation of metallothionein-I and metallothionein-II mRNA expression in the rat brain following traumatic brain injury.  

    Kim, Eun Hae , Kim, Tae Sik , Sun, Woong , Kim, Dal Soo , Chung, Hyun-Soo , Kim, Dong Ki , Park, Sun-Hwa
    Molecules and cells v.18 no.3 ,pp. 326 - 331 , 2004 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    In this study, we investigated the expression of metallothionein (MT)-I and MT-II in the rat brain following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the early stage, significant induction of MT-I and MT-II were observed in various regions including ventricle walls, pia mater, and dentate gyrus. At 12-24 h after TBI, strong induction of MT-I mRNA was observed in cerebral cortical layer II/III, amygdala, and piriform cortex where neurons reside. On the other hand, MT-II appeared to be expressed mainly in glial cells localized in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal formation. Three days after TBI, MTs were observed in the vimentin-positive astrocytes in the penumbra as revealed by double immunohistochemistry. The differences in expression of MT-I and MT-II in different brain regions and cell types (neuron vs. glial cells) suggests that multiple regulatory mechanisms are involved in the control of MT expression following brain injury.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지
  9. [국내논문]   Differential regulation of three genes encoding glutathione S-transferases in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

    Kim, Hong-Gyum , Kim, Byung-Chul , Park, Eun-Hee , Ahn, Kisup , Lim, Chang-Jin
    Molecules and cells v.18 no.3 ,pp. 332 - 339 , 2004 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are detoxifying enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of glutathione with a variety of reactive electrophilic compounds. Three GST genes were previously characterized in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, we examined the transcriptional regulation of these genes using individual GST-lacZ fusions and RT-PCR. Basal synthesis of beta-galactosidase from the GSTII-lacZ fusion was higher than from the GSTI-lacZ and GSTIII-lacZ fusion. Diethylmaleate (0.2 mM) greatly enhanced the synthesis of beta-galactosidase from the GSTII-lacZ fusion, but did not affect synthesis from the other two fusion genes. A switch to 0.3% glucose or 0.3% sucrose as sole carbon source enhanced expression from the GSTIII-lacZ fusion gene, while sodium nitroprusside (1.5 mM), tert-butylhydroquinone (0.2 mM), and L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (0.01 mM) increased expression of the GSTII gene. The effects of these agents on GST mRNA levels were confirmed by measurements employing RT-PCR. Our results suggest that transcription of the three S. pombe GST genes is subjected to differential regulation under various stress conditions, and may be linked to their different physiological functions.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [국내논문]   Polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene and waist-hip ratio in obese Korean women.  

    Um, Jae-Young , Kang, Byung-Ku , Lee, Si-Hyeong , Shin, Jo-Young , Hong, Seung-Heon , Kim, Hyung-Min
    Molecules and cells v.18 no.3 ,pp. 340 - 345 , 2004 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    A number of candidate genes have been in implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity in humans. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is expressed primarily in adipocytes, and elevated levels of this cytokine have been linked to obesity and insulin resistance. Recently, the A allele of a polymorphism at position -308 in the promoter region of TNFalpha (G-308A) has been shown to increase transcription of the gene in adipocytes. We therefore designed this study to test whether obese and non-obese subjects differ in terms of TNFalpha genotype distribution. We also investigated whether the genotypes affect anthropometric parameters, such as body mass index (BMI). The study included 153 obese healthy women and 82 non-obese women. Total fat mass and percent body fat were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Genomic DNA was extracted and used for NcoI restriction fragment length polymorphism-based genotyping of TNFalpha. No differences were observed in allele and genotype frequencies between obese and non-obese women, and no association of TNFalpha polymorphism with BMI was observed for genotype in the obese women. In addition, age, percent body fat, BMI, and cholesterol levels did not vary with TNFalpha genotype. However, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was significantly lower in subjects with TNFalpha GA or AA genotypes (0.94 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.92 +/- 0.03, P

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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