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Science 91건

  1. [해외논문]   Programming gene and engineered-cell therapies with synthetic biology   SCI SCIE

    Kitada, Tasuku , DiAndreth, Breanna , Teague, Brian , Weiss, Ron
    Science v.359 no.6376 = no.6376 ,pp. eaad1067 - eaad1067 , 2018 , 0036-8075 ,

    초록

    Toward programmed therapeutics Advances in synthetic biology are enabling the development of new gene and cell therapies. Kitada et al. review recent successes in areas such as cancer immunotherapy and stem cell therapy, point out the limitations of current approaches, and describe prospects for using synthetic biology to overcome these challenges. Broader adoption of these therapies requires precise, context-specific control over cellular behavior. Gene circuits can be built to give sophisticated control over cellular behaviors so that therapeutic functions can, for example, be programmed to activate in response to disease biomarkers. Science , this issue p. eaad1067 Gene and engineered-cell therapies promise to treat diseases by genetically modifying cells to carry out therapeutic tasks. Although the field has had some success in treating monogenic disorders and hematological malignancies, current approaches are limited to overexpression of one or a few transgenes, constraining the diseases that can be treated with this approach and leading to potential concerns over safety and efficacy. Synthetic gene networks can regulate the dosage, timing, and localization of gene expression and therapeutic activity in response to small molecules and disease biomarkers. Such “programmable” gene and engineered-cell therapies will provide new interventions for incurable or difficult-to-treat diseases.

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  2. [해외논문]   A pathway for mitotic chromosome formation   SCI SCIE

    Gibcus, Johan H. (Program in Systems Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 368 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ) , Samejima, Kumiko (Wellcome Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, Max Born Crescent, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, Scotland, UK. ) , Goloborodko, Anton (Institute for Medical Engineering and Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ) , Samejima, Itaru (Wellcome Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, Max Born Crescent, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, Scotland, UK. ) , Naumova, Natalia (Program in Systems Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 368 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ) , Nuebler, Johannes (Institute for Medical Engineering and Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ) , Kanemaki, Masato T. (Division of Molecular Cell Engineering, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of I) , Xie, Linfeng , Paulson, James R. , Earnshaw, William C. , Mirny, Leonid A. , Dekker, Job
    Science v.359 no.6376 = no.6376 ,pp. eaao6135 - eaao6135 , 2018 , 0036-8075 ,

    초록

    Tracking mitotic chromosome formation How cells pack DNA into fully compact, rod-shaped chromosomes during mitosis has fascinated cell biologists for more than a century. Gibcus et al. delineated the conformational transition trajectory from interphase chromatin to mitotic chromosomes minute by minute during the cell cycle. The mitotic chromosome is organized in a spiral staircase architecture in which chromatin loops emanate radially from a centrally located helical scaffold. The molecular machines condensin I and II play distinct roles in these processes: Condensin II is essential for helical winding, whereas condensin I modulates the organization within each helical turn. Science , this issue p. eaao6135 Mitotic chromosomes fold as compact arrays of chromatin loops. To identify the pathway of mitotic chromosome formation, we combined imaging and Hi-C analysis of synchronous DT40 cell cultures with polymer simulations. Here we show that in prophase, the interphase organization is rapidly lost in a condensin-dependent manner, and arrays of consecutive 60-kilobase (kb) loops are formed. During prometaphase, ~80-kb inner loops are nested within ~400-kb outer loops. The loop array acquires a helical arrangement with consecutive loops emanating from a central “spiral staircase” condensin scaffold. The size of helical turns progressively increases to ~12 megabases during prometaphase. Acute depletion of condensin I or II shows that nested loops form by differential action of the two condensins, whereas condensin II is required for helical winding.

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  3. [해외논문]   War and peace in the nuclear age   SCI SCIE

    Colglazier, E. William
    Science v.359 no.6376 = no.6376 ,pp. 613 - 613 , 2018 , 0036-8075 ,

    초록

    The ongoing confrontation with North Korea is a reminder that the world must prevent nuclear weapons from ever being used again. North Korea's development of a nuclear arsenal and delivery systems that could threaten the U.S. mainland, South Korea, and Japan has heightened the possibility of a disastrous conflict with hundreds of thousands of casualties. If constructive dialogue does not happen soon, the United States and North Korea may ratchet up tensions and take increasingly provocative actions. The decision by North and South Korea to field a combined team in the Winter Olympics gives hope for broader engagement, but diplomacy by scientists might be one step toward a more lasting rapprochement.

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  4. [해외논문]   News at a glance   SCI SCIE


    Science v.359 no.6376 = no.6376 ,pp. 614 - 616 , 2018 , 0036-8075 ,

    초록

    In science news around the world, statisticians and U.S. congressional representatives criticize a move by Puerto Rico to transfer many functions of an independent statistical agency to the private sector. SpaceX launches the Falcon Heavy, the most powerful rocket since the Saturn V, opening new opportunities in astronomy and space exploration. Turkey arrests doctors who called its assaults on Kurdish militants in Syria "a man-made public health problem." Cuba's science adviser, Fidel Castro Díaz-Balart, the eldest son of Fidel Castro, commits suicide following treatment for depression. U.S. President Donald Trump's highly controversial nominee to lead a key White House environmental panel removes herself from consideration. And the flu hits the United States hard, as the percentage of outpatient visits for influenzalike illness spikes to the third highest in the past 15 years.

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  5. [해외논문]   Design for U.S. exascale computer takes shape   SCI SCIE

    Service, Robert F.
    Science v.359 no.6376 = no.6376 ,pp. 617 - 618 , 2018 , 0036-8075 ,

    초록

    After dominating the supercomputing rankings for decades, supercomputing researchers in the United States have been playing catch-up behind China for much of this decade. Now, they are poised to reclaim the top spot. Engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee are nearing completion of Summit, a supercomputer capable of carrying out 200 million billion calculations per second, or 200 petaflops. Another team at Argonne National Laboratory in Lemont, Illinois, is also gearing to build a 1000-petaflop, or 1-exaflop, machine in 2021. The race to exascale is expected to be tight, with China, Japan, and the European Union also pursuing supercomputing's next major crown.

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  6. [해외논문]   China's planned exascale computer threatens Summit's position at the top   SCI SCIE

    Service, Robert F.
    Science v.359 no.6376 = no.6376 ,pp. 618 - 618 , 2018 , 0036-8075 ,

    초록

    China's rise to the top of the supercomputing world has been swift. It's only been in this decade that the country first claimed bragging rights to the world's most powerful supercomputer. It has held a tight grip on those rights the last few years. The United States is expected to reclaim the top spot later this year, as it is nearing completion of Summit, a supercomputer that is expected to be twice as powerful as its closest rival. Nevertheless, China is widely expected to produce the first supercomputer capable of carrying out 1 billion billion calculations per second, or 1 exaflop. If this exascale supercomputer comes online in 2020 as promised, that could put it a year or more ahead of similar exascale systems now being developed in the United States, Japan, and the European Union.

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  7. [해외논문]   Psychiatrists begin to map genetic architecture of mental disorders   SCI SCIE

    Dengler, Roni
    Science v.359 no.6376 = no.6376 ,pp. 619 - 619 , 2018 , 0036-8075 ,

    초록

    Mental illness affects one in six U.S. adults, but scientists' sense of the underlying biology of most psychiatric disorders remains nebulous. That's frustrating for physicians treating the diseases, who must make diagnoses based on symptoms that may only appear sporadically. Now, a large-scale analysis of postmortem brains is revealing distinctive molecular traces in people with mental illness. On p. 693, an international team of researchers reports that five major psychiatric disorders have often overlapping patterns of gene activity, which furthermore vary in disease-specific—and sometimes counterintuitive—ways. The findings, they say, might someday lead to diagnostic tests, and one has already inspired a clinical trial of a new way to treat overactive brain cells in autism.

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  8. [해외논문]   Use of cholera vaccines expands, raising hopes   SCI SCIE

    Kupferschmidt, Kai
    Science v.359 no.6376 = no.6376 ,pp. 620 - 621 , 2018 , 0036-8075 ,

    초록

    This could be a pivotal year in the fight against cholera, public health experts say. The disease has taken a large toll in the last months: In war-torn Yemen the number of cases reached more than a million; outbreaks ravaged South Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia, and other African countries; and Haiti continues to suffer from the disease. But an emergency vaccine stockpile established in 2013 has grown rapidly and a new, easier-to-use formulation has hit the market, making large-scale campaigns feasible. Soon, 2.4 million doses are to be shipped to Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where another epidemic looms. With interventions like this, experts hope to make a dent in the global burden of cholera, estimated at 3 million cases a year. And Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, which is funding the stockpile, is set to decide later this year whether it will start funding routine immunizations in endemic areas as well.

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  9. [해외논문]   Gene therapy field hit by fresh safety concern   SCI SCIE

    Kaiser, Jocelyn
    Science v.359 no.6376 = no.6376 ,pp. 621 - 621 , 2018 , 0036-8075 ,

    초록

    A virus that buoyed the gene therapy field when it led to dramatic benefits in babies born with a fatal neuromuscular condition is under scrutiny. A small animal study suggests that high doses of the virus, called adeno-associated virus 9, can cause severe liver and neuron damage in young monkeys and pigs. The results drew attention in part because they come from the lab of James Wilson at the University of Pennsylvania, who led a 1999 trial in which a teenager died from an immune reaction to a different gene therapy vector. He and others say, however, that although researchers should watch for similar side effects, ongoing clinical trials with the gene carrier should not be halted.

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  10. [해외논문]   Tobacco giant's research largesse ignites controversy   SCI SCIE

    Enserink, Martin
    Science v.359 no.6376 = no.6376 ,pp. 622 - 623 , 2018 , 0036-8075 ,

    초록

    Tobacco giant Philip Morris International (PMI) has pledged to donate almost $1 billion to the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, launched in September 2017, which will spend most of its money on research on "harm reduction" strategies that help smokers switch to less dangerous alternatives such as e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products. PMI is investing heavily in such products. The foundation hopes to award its first major grants within a few months, but many scientists and public health experts are squarely opposed to accepting money from big tobacco and have called for a boycott of the new foundation; the World Health Organization has called the foundation a "deeply alarming development."

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