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Microvascular research 13건

  1. [해외논문]   Cover 2/ Ed. Board  


    Microvascular research v.115 ,pp. IFC , 2018 , 0026-2862 ,

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Cover 2/ Ed. Board   SCI SCIE


    Microvascular research v.115 ,pp. IFC - IFC , 2018 , 0026-2862 ,

    초록

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Differences in laser-Doppler indices between skin-surface measurement sites in subjects with diabetes   SCI SCIE

    Hsiu, Hsin (Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan ) , Hu, Hsiao-Feng (Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan ) , Tsai, Hung-Chi (Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan)
    Microvascular research v.115 ,pp. 1 - 7 , 2018 , 0026-2862 ,

    초록

    Abstract This study performed laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measurements with the aim of identifying differences in diabetes-induced microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) responses between the following skin surface measurement sites: an acupoint around the wrist, an acupoint around the ankle, and a nearby nonacupoint around the ankle. The 67 study subjects were assigned to diabetic, prediabetic, and healthy groups according to the results of oral glucose tolerance tests. Beat-to-beat and spectral analyses were applied to the LDF waveform to obtain the foot delay time (FDT), the flow rise time (FRT), and the relative energy contributions (RECs) in five frequency bands. FRT and FDT were significantly shorter and the RECs of the endothelial-, neural-, and myogenic-related frequency bands were significantly smaller in the diabetic group than in the control group at the acupoint around the ankle, but there were no such prominent differences at the other sites. The acupoint around the ankle was better than the nearby nonacupoint and the acupoint around the wrist for distinguishing the age-matched diabetic, prediabetic, and healthy subjects. These findings imply that when monitoring diabetes-induced MBF responses, the measurement locations should be chosen carefully in order to minimize interference effects and to improve the ability to distinguish subjects with different conditions. Highlights LDF measurements to identify differences in diabetes-induced MBF responses Between acupoint around the wrist, acupoint and nearby nonacupoint around the ankle Acupoint around the ankle better distinguishes diabetic and healthy subjects. Measurement locations should be chosen carefully to minimize interference effects.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Transient endothelial dysfunction induced by sugar-sweetened beverage consumption may be attenuated by a single bout of aerobic exercise   SCI SCIE

    Varsamis, Pia (School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia ) , Walther, Guillaume (School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia ) , Share, Bianca (School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia ) , Taylor, Frances (Centre of Research Excellence to Reduce Inequality in Heart Disease, Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia ) , Stewart, Simon (The Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia ) , Lorenzen, Christian (School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia ) , Loader, Jordan (School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia)
    Microvascular research v.115 ,pp. 8 - 11 , 2018 , 0026-2862 ,

    초록

    Abstract Background This study assessed whether aerobic exercise would attenuate microvascular endothelial dysfunction induced by commercial sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Methods Eleven healthy males participated in this randomized, single-blind crossover study. Cutaneous microvascular endothelial function was assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with post-occlusive reactive hyperemia before and after a) consumption of water; b) consumption of a commercial SSB; c) 30min of aerobic exercise followed by water consumption; and d) 30 minutes of aerobic exercise followed by SSB consumption. Blood glucose and arterial pressure responses were also monitored. Volumes of water and SSB consumed (637.39±29.15 mL) were individualized for each participant, ensuring SSB consumption delivered 1 g of sucrose per kg of body weight. Exercise was performed at 75% of the maximal oxygen uptake heart rate. Results Compared to water consumption, the commercial SSB elevated blood glucose concentrations in both sedentary (4.69±0.11 vs . 7.47±0.28 mmol/L, P vs . 7.93±0.15 mmol/L, P vs . 179.83±15.80%, P=0.01) and the change in peak hyperemic blood flux from basal to post-intervention assessments (−0.04±0.03 vs . −0.12±0.02 ΔCVC, P=0.01), was attenuated following 30min of aerobic exercise. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that a single bout of aerobic exercise may prevent transient SSB-mediated microvascular endothelial dysfunction.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   The effect of age on the response of retinal capillary filling to changes in intraocular pressure measured by optical coherence tomography angiography   SCI SCIE

    Jiang, Xiaoyun (Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA ) , Johnson, Elaine (Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA ) , Cepurna, William (Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA ) , Lozano, Diana (Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA ) , Men, Shaojie (Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA ) , Wang, Ruikang K. (Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA ) , Morrison, John (Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA)
    Microvascular research v.115 ,pp. 12 - 19 , 2018 , 0026-2862 ,

    초록

    Abstract Purpose To compare the effect of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) on retinal capillary filling in elderly vs adult rats using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods The IOP of elderly (24-month-old, N = 12) and adult (6–8month-old, N = 10) Brown Norway rats was elevated in 10mmHg increments from 10 to 100mmHg. At each IOP level, 3D OCT data were captured using an optical microangiography (OMAG) scanning protocol and then post-processed to obtain both structural and vascular images. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiratory rate, pulse and blood oxygen saturation were monitored non-invasively throughout each experiment. Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was calculated as the difference between MAP for each animal and IOP at each level. The capillary filling index (CFI), defined as the ratio of area occupied by functional capillary vessels to the total scan area but excluding relatively large vessels of >30μm, was calculated at each IOP level and analyzed using the OCTA angiograms. Relative CFI vs IOP was plotted for the group means. CFI vs OPP was plotted for every animal in each group and data from all animals were combined in a CFI vs OPP scatter plot comparing the two groups. Results The MAP in adult animals was 108±5mmHg (mean±SD), whereas this value in the elderly was 99±5mmHg. All other physiologic parameters for both age groups were uniform and stable. In elderly animals, significant reduction of the CFI was first noted at IOP 40mmHg, as opposed to 60mmHg in adult animals. Individual assessment of CFI as a function of OPP for adult animals revealed a consistent plateau until OPP reached between 40 and 60mmHg. Elderly individuals demonstrated greater variability, with many showing a beginning of gradual deterioration of CFI at an OPP as high as 80mmHg. Overall comparison of CFI vs OPP between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions Compared to adults, some, but not all, elderly animals demonstrate a more rapid deterioration of CFI vs OPP. This suggests a reduced autoregulatory capacity that may contribute to increased glaucoma susceptibility in some older individuals. This variability must be considered when studying the relationship between IOP, ocular perfusion and glaucoma in elderly animal models. Highlights Optical coherence tomography angiography is useful in investigating dynamic retinal capillary filling in small animal models. Elderly individuals demonstrate greater sensitivity of retinal capillary filling to elevated intraocular pressure than young adults. The relationship of retinal capillary filling to ocular perfusion pressure in elderly individuals is variable. Some elderly individuals demonstrate less autoregulatory capacity than young adults.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   Carvacrol promotes angiogenic paracrine potential and endothelial differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells at low concentrations   SCI SCIE

    Matluobi, Danial (Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran ) , Araghi, Atefeh (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran ) , Maragheh, Behnaz Faramarzian Azimi (Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran ) , Rezabakhsh, Aysa (Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran ) , Soltani, Sina (Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran ) , Khaksar, Majid (Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran ) , Siavashi, Vahid (Departments of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran ) , Feyzi, Adel (Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran ) , Bagheri, Hesam Saghaei (Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran ) , Rahbarghazi, Reza (Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran ) , Montazersaheb, Soheila (Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran)
    Microvascular research v.115 ,pp. 20 - 27 , 2018 , 0026-2862 ,

    초록

    Abstract Objectives Phenolic monoterpene compound, named Carvacrol, has been found to exert different biological outcomes. It has been accepted that the angiogenic activity of human mesenchymal stem cells was crucial in the pursuit of appropriate regeneration. In the current experiment, we investigated the contribution of Carvacrol on the angiogenic behavior of primary human mesenchymal stem cells. Methods Mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to Carvacrol in a dose ranging from 25 to 200μM for 48h. We measured cell survival rate by MTT assay and migration rate by a scratch test. The oxidative status was monitored by measuring SOD, GPx activity. The endothelial differentiation was studied by evaluating the level of VE-cadherin and vWF by real-time PCR and ELISA analyses. The content of VEGF and tubulogenesis behavior was monitored in vitro . We also conducted Matrigel plug in vivo CAM assay to assess the angiogenic potential of conditioned media from human mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to Carvacrol. Results Carvacrol was able to increase mesenchymal stem cell survival and migration rate ( p p in vitro ( p Conclusions Our data shed lights on the possibility of a Carvacrol to induce angiogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells by modulating cell differentiation and paracrine angiogenic response. Highlights Carvacrol promotes human mesenchymal stem cells viability, antioxidant activity and migration in vitro . Carvacrol stimulates trans‑differentiation of stem cells into endothelial lineage by inducing vWF and VE-cadherin. Angiocrine activity of stem cells is improved in the presence of Carvacrol by the secretion of VEGF. Condition media prepared from Carvacrol-exposed cells induce angiogenesis in vivo .

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   Correlations between blood perfusion and dermal thickness in different skin areas of systemic sclerosis patients   SCI SCIE

    Ruaro, B. (Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, University of Genova, IRCCS Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy ) , Sulli, A. (Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, University of Genova, IRCCS Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy ) , Pizzorni, C. (Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, University of Genova, IRCCS Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy ) , Paolino, S. (Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, University of Genova, IRCCS Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy ) , Smith, V. (Department of Rheumatology, Ghent University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium ) , Alessandri, E. (Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medici) , Trombetta, A.C. , Alsheyyab, J. , Cutolo, M.
    Microvascular research v.115 ,pp. 28 - 33 , 2018 , 0026-2862 ,

    초록

    Abstract Objective To identify possible correlations between skin blood perfusion (BP) and dermal thickness (DT) in different skin areas of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Methods Sixty-two SSc patients, according to 2013 EULAR/ACR criteria, and 62 healthy subjects (CNT) were enrolled. Skin BP was analysed by laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) at the level of dorsum of the middle phalanx of the third fingers, dorsal aspect of the hands and zygoma. DT was assessed by both skin high frequency ultrasound (US) and modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) in the same above reported areas. All patients were studied also by nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) to assess the proper pattern of microvascular damage (“Early”, “Active”, or “Late”). Results At the level of finger dorsum a statistically significant negative correlation was observed in SSc patients between skin BP and both ultrasound-DT (p=0.0005 r=0.43) and mRSS (p=0.0007 r=0.42), but not at the level of hand dorsum and zygoma. No statistically significant correlation was present between skin BP and ultrasound-DT at any level in CNT. In detail, SSc patients, compared to CNT, showed a statistically significant lower BP only at level of fingers (median PU 72.6 vs 136.1 respectively, p Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time in SSc patients a significant inverse relationship between skin BP, measured by LASCA, and DT, evaluated by both US and mRSS, at the level of dorsum of the middle phalanx of the third fingers. Highlights Imaging is an important adjunct to quantify and follow some aspects of SSc. Both LASCA and skin high frequency ultrasound are safe and not invasive techniques. Both LASCA and skin high frequency ultrasound allow to follow-up several aspects of the disease course in SSc patients. LASCA and US together may give the possibility to quantify in SSc the therapeutic effects of different regimens.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   An effective model of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity and blood flow autoregulation   SCI SCIE

    Acosta, Sebastiá (Corresponding author at: 1102 Bates Ave. Suite 430.01, Houston, TX 77030, United States.) , n , Penny, Daniel J. , Brady, Ken M. , Rusin, Craig G.
    Microvascular research v.115 ,pp. 34 - 43 , 2018 , 0026-2862 ,

    초록

    Abstract Understanding cerebral blood flow dynamics is crucial for the care of patients at risk of poor cerebral perfusion. We describe an effective model of cerebral hemodynamics designed to reveal important macroscopic features of cerebral blood flow without having to resolve the detailed microvasculature of the brain. Based on principles of fluid and elastic dynamics and vascular pressure-reactivity, the model quantifies the physical means by which the vasculature executes autoregulatory reflexes. We demonstrate that the frequency response of the proposed model matches experimental measurements and explains the influence of mechanical factors on the autoregulatory performance. Analysis of the model indicates the existence of an optimal mean arterial pressure which minimizes the sensitivity of the flow to changes in perfusion pressure across the frequency spectrum of physiological oscillations. We highlight the simplicity of the model and its potential to improve monitoring of brain perfusion via real-time computational simulations of cerebro- and cardio-vascular interventions. Highlights A lumped-parameter model of cerebral blood flow autoregulation is developed. The model quantifies the effectiveness of myogenic pressure-reactivity and its limitations. The model explains pressure bounds outside of which autoregulation loses effectiveness. The model demonstrates how inertial and resistance factors degrade the autoregulatory performance. By including the buckling of vessels, the model shows that the collapse of vessels obstructs the myogenic dilation in the hypotensive regime.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   Cutaneous and renal vasodilatory response to local pressure application: A comparative study in mice   SCI SCIE

    Begey, Anne-Laure (Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutic Engineering, UMR 5305 CNRS, University Lyon 1, France ) , Liu, Kiao Ling (Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutic Engineering, UMR 5305 CNRS, University Lyon 1, France ) , Lo, Ming (Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutic Engineering, UMR 5305 CNRS, University Lyon 1, France ) , Josset-Lamaugarny, Audrey (Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutic Engineering, UMR 5305 CNRS, University Lyon 1, France ) , Picard, Nicolas (ERL 8228, INSERM UMR S1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, University Paris VI, France ) , Gauthier, Catherine (Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutic Engineering, UMR 5305 CNRS, University Lyon 1, France ) , Fromy, Berengere (Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutic Engineering, UMR 5305 CNRS, University Lyon 1, France ) , Sigaudo-Roussel, Dominique (Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutic Engineering, UMR 5305 CNRS, University Lyon 1, France ) , Dubourg, Laurence (Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutic Engineering, UMR 5305 CNRS, University Lyon 1, France)
    Microvascular research v.115 ,pp. 44 - 51 , 2018 , 0026-2862 ,

    초록

    Abstract Background and aim We have reported a novel relationship involving mechanical stimulation and vasodilation in rodent and human skin, referred to as pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). It is unknown whether this mechanism exists in kidney and reflects the microcirculation in deep organs. Therefore, we compared the skin and kidney PIV to determine whether their changes were similar. Methods In anesthetized mice fed a normal salt-diet, laser Doppler flux (LDF) signals were measured when an increase in local pressure was applied to the surface of the head skin with the rate of 2.2Pa/s (1mmHg/min) and to the left kidney with a rate of 4.4Pa/s (2mmHg/min). The mechanism underlying renal PIV was also investigated. The skin and kidney PIV were also compared during salt load (4% NaCl diet). Results The kidney had higher baseline LDF and vascular conductance compared to those of the skin. Pressure application increased the LDF in the kidney as well as in the skin with a comparable maximal magnitude (about 25% from baseline value), despite different kinetics of PIV evolution. As we previously reported in the skin, the kidney PIV response was mediated by the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels, the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide, and the participation of prostaglandins and nitric oxide. In the absence of hypertension, high salt intake abolished the cutaneous PIV response and markedly impaired the renal one. Conclusion PIV response in the mouse kidney results from a neuro-vascular interaction. Despite some differences between the skin and the kidney PIV, the similarities in their response and signaling mechanisms suggest that the cutaneous microcirculation could reflect, in part, the microcirculation of the renal cortex.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   Pronounced and sustained cutaneous vasoconstriction during and following cyrotherapy treatment: Role of neurotransmitters released from sympathetic nerves   SCI SCIE

    Christmas, Kevin M. (Environmental and Autonomic Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States ) , Patik, Jordan C. (Environmental and Autonomic Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States ) , Khoshnevis, Sepideh (Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States ) , Diller, Kenneth R. (Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States ) , Brothers, R. Matthew (Environmental and Autonomic Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States)
    Microvascular research v.115 ,pp. 52 - 57 , 2018 , 0026-2862 ,

    초록

    Abstract Cryotherapy is a therapeutic technique using ice or cold water applied to the skin to manage soft tissue trauma and injury. While beneficial, there are some potentially detrimental side effects, such as pronounced vasoconstriction and tissue ischemia that are sustained for hours post-treatment. This study tested the hypothesis that this vasoconstriction is mediated by 1) activation of post-synaptic α-adrenergic receptors and/or 2) activation of post-synaptic neuropeptide Y1 (NPY Y1) receptors. 8 subjects were fitted with a commercially available cryotherapy unit with a water perfused bladder on the lateral portion of the right calf. Participants were instrumented with four intradermal microdialysis probes beneath the bladder. The following conditions were applied at the four treatment sites: 1) control (Ringer solution), 2) combined post-synaptic β-adrenergic receptors and neuropeptide (NPY) Y 1 receptors blockade (P+B site), 3) combined post-synaptic α-adrenergic receptor, β-adrenergic receptor, and NPY Y 1 receptor blockade (Y+P+B site), and 4) blockade of pre-synaptic release of all neurotransmitters from the sympathetic nerves (BT site). Following thermoneutral baseline data collection, 1°C water was perfused through the bladder for 30min, followed by passive rewarming for 60min. Skin temperature (T skin ) fell from ~34°C to ~18.5°C during active cooling across all sites and there was no difference between sites ( P >0.05 vs. control for each site). During passive rewarming T skin rose to a similar degree in all sites ( P >0.05 relative to the end of cooling). In the first 20min of cooling %CVC was reduced at all sites however, this response was blunted in the BT and the Y+P+B sites ( P >0.05 for all comparisons). By the end of cooling the degree of vasoconstriction was similar between sites with the exception that the reduction in %CVC in the Y+B+P site was less relative to the reduction in the control site. %CVC was unchanged in any of the sites during passive rewarming such that each remained similar to values obtained at the end of active cooling. These findings indicate that the initial vasoconstriction (i.e. within the 1st 20min) that occurs during cryotherapy induced local cooling is achieved via activation of post-synaptic α-adrenergic receptors; whereas nonadrenergic mechanisms predominate as the duration of cooling continues. The sustained vasoconstriction that occurs following cessation of the cooling stimulus does not appear to be related to activation of post-synaptic α-adrenergic receptors or NPY Y1 receptor. Highlights Cryotherapy treatment is used in treatment after surgery and in sports medicine. Cryotherapy causes pronounced and sustained vasoconstriction in the cooled area. This ischemia can cause side effects such as tissue necrosis and neuropathy. The initial vasoconstriction is due to activation of α-adrenergic receptors. Post-cooling vasoconstriction is not due to α-adrenergic or NPY Y1 receptors.

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