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Journal of hydrology 67건

  1. [해외논문]   Editorial Board  


    Journal of hydrology v.562 ,pp. ii - ii , 2018 , 0022-1694 ,

    초록

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  2. [해외논문]   Influence of rainfall data scarcity on non-point source pollution prediction: Implications for physically based models  

    Chen, Lei (State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, PR China ) , Xu, Jiajia (State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, PR China ) , Wang, Guobo (Waterborne Transport Research Institute, Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China, Beijing 100088, PR China ) , Liu, Hongbin (Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Non-Point Source Pollution Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, PR China ) , Zhai, Limei (Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Non-Point Source Pollution Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, PR China ) , Li, Shuang (State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, PR China ) , Sun, Cheng (State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of En) , Shen, Zhenyao
    Journal of hydrology v.562 ,pp. 1 - 16 , 2018 , 0022-1694 ,

    초록

    Abstract Hydrological and non-point source pollution (H/NPS) predictions in ungagged basins have become the key problem for watershed studies, especially for those large-scale catchments. However, few studies have explored the comprehensive impacts of rainfall data scarcity on H/NPS predictions. This study focused on: 1) the effects of rainfall spatial scarcity (by removing 11%–67% of stations based on their locations) on the H/NPS results; and 2) the impacts of rainfall temporal scarcity (10%–60% data scarcity in time series); and 3) the development of a new evaluation method that incorporates information entropy. A case study was undertaken using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a typical watershed in China. The results of this study highlighted the importance of critical-site rainfall stations that often showed greater influences and cross-tributary impacts on the H/NPS simulations. Higher missing rates above a certain threshold as well as missing locations during the wet periods resulted in poorer simulation results. Compared to traditional indicators, information entropy could serve as a good substitute because it reflects the distribution of spatial variability and the development of temporal heterogeneity. This paper reports important implications for the application of Distributed Hydrological Models and Semi-distributed Hydrological Models, as well as for the optimal design of rainfall gauges among large basins. Highlights The impacts of rainfall data scarcity on NPS predictions were quantified. Both spatial and temporal data scarcity were considered for a real case study. New entropy method was provided for quantifying information of each dataset. The critical-site and number of rainfall stations were identified. The threshold effect and rainfall monitoring during wet season was highlighted.

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  3. [해외논문]   Entry pressure for the rough capillary: Semi-analytical model, Lattice Boltzmann simulation  

    Wei, Bei (School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580, China ) , Hou, Jian (School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580, China ) , Huang, Haibo (Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China ) , Sukop, Michael C. (Department of Earth and Environment, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA ) , Liu, Yongge (School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580, China ) , Zhou, Kang (School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580, China)
    Journal of hydrology v.562 ,pp. 17 - 29 , 2018 , 0022-1694 ,

    초록

    Abstract We develop a semi-analytical model to calculate the entry pressure in rough capillaries based on an energy balance principle and wetting theory on rough surfaces. During the drainage process, we assume fluids form arc menisci at corners of capillary cross-sections depending on the apparent angle, and that there is a wetting phase film adsorbed on the rough surface depending on the wetting condition. A Logistic model is proposed to explain the contact angle dependence on the structure of rough surfaces. Then the capillary entry pressure is calculated by extended MS-P (Mayer, Stowe and Princen) method. We verify the model using the pseudopotential Lattice Boltzmann model and obtain good agreement between the analytical and simulated pressures. Taking capillaries with triangular sections with pillar pillar-type rough surfaces as example, we discuss how rough structures and contact angles influence capillary behaviors. The results reveal that both the wetting phase saturation and entry pressure of rough capillaries are larger than those in smooth capillaries under the same conditions. Moreover, the entry pressure is not sensitive to the roughness factor under strong wetting conditions and is much more sensitive to the pillar asperity height than the other structure parameters. Highlights We develop a semi-analytical model to calculate the entry pressure in rough capillaries. A Logistic model is proposed to explain the wetting theory on rough surfaces. We verify the model using the pseudopotential Lattice Boltzmann model. The wetting phase saturation of the rough capillary is larger than that in smooth capillary. The entry pressure of rough capillaries is larger too. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  4. [해외논문]   Stochastic modelling of the hydrologic operation of rainwater harvesting systems  

    Guo, Rui (Corresponding author.) , Guo, Yiping
    Journal of hydrology v.562 ,pp. 30 - 39 , 2018 , 0022-1694 ,

    초록

    Abstract Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems are an effective low impact development practice that provides both water supply and runoff reduction benefits. A stochastic modelling approach is proposed in this paper to quantify the water supply reliability and stormwater capture efficiency of RWH systems. The input rainfall series is represented as a marked Poisson process and two typical water use patterns are analytically described. The stochastic mass balance equation is solved analytically, and based on this, explicit expressions relating system performance to system characteristics are derived. The performances of a wide variety of RWH systems located in five representative climatic regions of the United States are examined using the newly derived analytical equations. Close agreements between analytical and continuous simulation results are shown for all the compared cases. In addition, an analytical equation is obtained expressing the required storage size as a function of the desired water supply reliability, average water use rate, as well as rainfall and catchment characteristics. The equations developed herein constitute a convenient and effective tool for sizing RWH systems and evaluating their performances. Highlights Stochastic equation developed to represent rainwater harvesting systems. Analytical solutions obtained for the stochastic equation. A rainwater harvesting system’s performance examination is made much easier.

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  5. [해외논문]   Hydrogeochemistry in the coastal area during construction of geological repository  

    Kim, Youn-Tae (Institute of Earth Atmosphere Astronomy, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea ) , Hyun, Seung Gyu (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34142, Republic of Korea ) , Cheong, Jae-Yeol (Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, 89 Bukseong-ro, Gyeongju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 38140, Republic of Korea ) , Woo, Nam C. (Department of Earth System Sciences, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea ) , Lee, Sangdeok (HYUNDAI Engineering Co., Ltd., 75, Yulgok-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03058, Republic of Korea)
    Journal of hydrology v.562 ,pp. 40 - 49 , 2018 , 0022-1694 ,

    초록

    Abstract A geological repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste (bottom at −130 m a.s.l.) was constructed from 2008 to 2014 in the southeastern coastal area in Korea. This research aimed to evaluate the hydrogeochemistry in this area during the construction period and to determine the characteristics that should be monitored during the operational period. During construction, the groundwater level decreased up to 136 m and the upper groundwater flow in the southeastern area reversed. After the groundwater level dropped below the sea level, the electrical conductivity (EC) in several wells along the coastal line started to increase; 23.2% of the measured water was classified as brackish water and the highest EC observed in groundwater was 18.9 mS/cm, nearly 38% of EC in seawater. The response time of the groundwater chemistry differs depending on the depth, even in wells, because of fracture networks. Among locations that showed drastic changes in EC, only the shallow depth of GM-4 showed a peak pattern in EC, but other locations showed increasing EC patterns or patterns with initial increase and sustained high till the end of the construction period. Based on the Cl/Br ratio, the source of the groundwater salinity was seawater intrusion, and ion exchange played an important role. Compared to Cl concentration, sodium was depleted and calcium was in excess in brackish water; however, the SO 4 /Cl ratio remained constant at a level similar to seawater. Ca and Fe concentrations showed distinguishable characteristics depending on the location, suggesting differences in geological media. During the operational period, periodical evaluation of the groundwater chemistry in the mixing zone and continuous monitoring of EC patterns and seawater fractions are required. Highlights Dewatering during the construction caused a reversal of groundwater flow direction. Seawater intrusion occurred via preferential flow-paths in the southeastern area. Accompanying cation exchange was the major hydrogeochemical process. Periodical evaluation of groundwater chemistry is critical in a site monitoring.

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  6. [해외논문]   Coupling Poisson rectangular pulse and multiplicative microcanonical random cascade models to generate sub-daily precipitation timeseries  

    Pohle, Ina (Chair of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Siemens-Halske-Ring 8, 03046 Cottbus, Germany ) , Niebisch, Michael (Chair of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Siemens-Halske-Ring 8, 03046 Cottbus, Germany ) , Mü (Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 9a, 30167 Hanover, Germany ) , ller, Hannes (Chair of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Siemens-Halske-Ring 8, 03046 Cottbus, Germany ) , Schü (Chair of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Siemens-Halske-Ring 8, 03046 Cottbus, Germany ) , mberg, Sabine (Chair of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Siemens-Halske-Ring 8, 03046 Cottbus, Germany ) , Zha, Tingting (Chair of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Brandenburg University of Techn) , Maurer, Thomas , Hinz, Christoph
    Journal of hydrology v.562 ,pp. 50 - 70 , 2018 , 0022-1694 ,

    초록

    Abstract To simulate the impacts of within-storm rainfall variabilities on fast hydrological processes, long precipitation time series with high temporal resolution are required. Due to limited availability of observed data such time series are typically obtained from stochastic models. However, most existing rainfall models are limited in their ability to conserve rainfall event statistics which are relevant for hydrological processes. Poisson rectangular pulse models are widely applied to generate long time series of alternating precipitation events durations and mean intensities as well as interstorm period durations. Multiplicative microcanonical random cascade (MRC) models are used to disaggregate precipitation time series from coarse to fine temporal resolution. To overcome the inconsistencies between the temporal structure of the Poisson rectangular pulse model and the MRC model, we developed a new coupling approach by introducing two modifications to the MRC model. These modifications comprise (a) a modified cascade model (“constrained cascade”) which preserves the event durations generated by the Poisson rectangular model by constraining the first and last interval of a precipitation event to contain precipitation and (b) continuous sigmoid functions of the multiplicative weights to consider the scale-dependency in the disaggregation of precipitation events of different durations. The constrained cascade model was evaluated in its ability to disaggregate observed precipitation events in comparison to existing MRC models. For that, we used a 20-year record of hourly precipitation at six stations across Germany. The constrained cascade model showed a pronounced better agreement with the observed data in terms of both the temporal pattern of the precipitation time series (e.g. the dry and wet spell durations and autocorrelations) and event characteristics (e.g. intra-event intermittency and intensity fluctuation within events). The constrained cascade model also slightly outperformed the other MRC models with respect to the intensity-frequency relationship. To assess the performance of the coupled Poisson rectangular pulse and constrained cascade model, precipitation events were stochastically generated by the Poisson rectangular pulse model and then disaggregated by the constrained cascade model. We found that the coupled model performs satisfactorily in terms of the temporal pattern of the precipitation time series, event characteristics and the intensity-frequency relationship. Highlights An event-based continuous time step rainfall generator is proposed. Combination of a Poisson rectangular pulse and a microcanonical cascade model. A new coupling algorithm matches time steps of the Poisson and cascade models. The model preserves event durations and within-storm variability. The temporal structure of precipitation data (e.g. autocorrelation) is reproduced.

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  7. [해외논문]   Cross-evaluation of ground-based, multi-satellite and reanalysis precipitation products: Applicability of the Triple Collocation method across Mainland China  

    Li, Changming (State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China ) , Tang, Guoqiang (State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China ) , Hong, Yang (State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China)
    Journal of hydrology v.562 ,pp. 71 - 83 , 2018 , 0022-1694 ,

    초록

    Abstract Evaluating the reliability of satellite and reanalysis precipitation products is critical but challenging over ungauged or poorly gauged regions. The Triple Collocation (TC) method is a reliable approach to estimate the accuracy of any three independent inputs in the absence of truth values. This study assesses the uncertainty of three types of independent precipitation products, i.e., satellite-based, ground-based and model reanalysis over Mainland China using the TC method. The ground-based data set is Gauge Based Daily Precipitation Analysis (CGDPA). The reanalysis data set is European Reanalysis Agency Reanalysis Product (ERA-interim). The satellite-based products include five mainstream satellite products. The comparison and evaluation are conducted at 0.25° and daily resolutions from 2013 to 2015. First, the effectiveness of the TC method is evaluated in South China with dense gauge network. The results demonstrate that the TC method is reliable because the correlation coefficient (CC) and root mean square error (RMSE) derived from TC are close to those derived from ground observations, with only 9% and 7% mean relative differences, respectively. Then, the TC method is applied in Mainland China, with special attention paid to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) known as the Earth’s third pole with few ground stations. Results indicate that (1) The overall performance of IMERG is better than the other satellite products over Mainland China, followed by 3B42V7, CMORPH-CRT and PERSIANN-CDR. (2) In the TP, CGDPA shows the best overall performance over gauged grid cells, however, over ungauged regions, IMERG and ERA-interim slightly outperform CGDPA with similar RMSE but higher mean CC (0.63, 0.61, and 0.58, respectively). It highlights the strengths and potentiality of remote sensing and reanalysis data over the TP and reconfirms the cons of the inherent uncertainty of CGDPA due to interpolation from sparsely gauged data. The study concludes that the TC method provides not only reliable cross-validation results over Mainland China but also a new perspective for comparatively assessing multi-source precipitation products, particularly over poorly gauged regions such as the TP. Highlights The effectiveness of the Triple Collocation method is validated. Multi-source precipitation products are evaluated across Mainland China. IMERG and ERA-interim slightly outshine the ground observations in the TP.

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  8. [해외논문]   Large scale spatially explicit modeling of blue and green water dynamics in a temperate mid-latitude basin  

    Du, Liuying (Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ) , Rajib, Adnan (Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA) , Merwade, Venkatesh (now at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA )
    Journal of hydrology v.562 ,pp. 84 - 102 , 2018 , 0022-1694 ,

    초록

    Abstract Looking only at climate change impacts provides partial information about a changing hydrologic regime. Understanding the spatio-temporal nature of change in hydrologic processes, and the explicit contributions from both climate and land use drivers, holds more practical value for water resources management and policy intervention. This study presents a comprehensive assessment on the spatio-temporal trend of Blue Water (BW) and Green Water (GW) in a 490,000 km 2 temperate mid-latitude basin (Ohio River Basin) over the past 80 years (1935–2014), and from thereon, quantifies the combined as well as relative contributions of climate and land use changes. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is adopted to simulate hydrologic fluxes. Mann-Kendall and Theil-Sen statistical tests are performed on the modeled outputs to detect respectively the trend and magnitude of changes at three different spatial scales – the entire basin, regional level, and sub-basin level. Despite the overall volumetric increase of both BW and GW in the entire basin, changes in their annual average values during the period of simulation reveal a distinctive spatial pattern. GW has increased significantly in the upper and lower parts of the basin, which can be related to the prominent land use change in those areas. BW has increased significantly only in the lower part, likely being associated with the notable precipitation change there. Furthermore, the simulation under a time-varying climate but constant land use scenario identifies climate change in the Ohio River Basin to be influential on BW, while the impact is relatively nominal on GW; whereas, land use change increases GW remarkably, but is counterproductive on BW. The approach to quantify combined/relative effects of climate and land use change as shown in this study can be replicated to understand BW-GW dynamics in similar large basins around the globe. Highlights Hydrologic modeling of a ∼0.5 million km 2 basin with 80 years of climate and land use change data. First spatio-temporal assessment on blue and green water (BW-GW) dynamics in the Ohio River Basin. We quantified the combined and relative contributions of climate/land use change on BW/GW. We identified a distinct spatial correlation of BW/GW with precipitation and land use change. Long-term trend in BW and GW is dominated respectively by climate and land use change.

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  9. [해외논문]   Developing a comprehensive framework for eutrophication management in off-stream artificial lakes  

    Khorasani, Hamed (School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran ) , Kerachian, Reza (School of Civil Engineering and Center of Excellence for Engineering and Management of Civil Infrastructures, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran ) , Malakpour-Estalaki, Siamak (School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran)
    Journal of hydrology v.562 ,pp. 103 - 124 , 2018 , 0022-1694 ,

    초록

    Abstract In this paper, a comprehensive and interdisciplinary framework for management of eutrophication in off-stream artificial lakes in semi-arid and arid regions is proposed. Identification of the lake’s water resources system components and stakeholders, simulation of Phosphorus (P) export from upstream watershed, simulation of the lake water quality as well as simulation of water demands and supply, development of management scenarios for the lake and selecting the best scenario using social choice methods (i.e. discrete and fuzzy Borda counts) are the four main parts of the framework. The proposed framework is applied on Chitgar Artificial Lake (ChAL), the largest intra-urban artificial lake in Tehran which has been constructed in 2010–2013 for recreational purposes. The Load Apportionment Model (LAM) is used for the simulation of P loads from the point and non-point (diffusive) sources and the LakeMab model is used for the simulation of P dynamics in the lake. The management scenarios contain optimized rule curves for water intake/outtake blended with P management plans (i.e. removal of point sources of P load in the upstream watershed, construction of a hydroponic bio-filter or an advanced water treatment plant beside the lake for reduction of external loading of P and recycling lake water, alum treatment of lake sediments for controlling the internal loading of P as well as construction of a dry detention basin). The most preferred scenarios selected by the discrete Borda count are the low-cost alum treatment and dry detention basin, while the most preferred scenario according to fuzzy Borda count, which considers the uncertainty of model inputs, is the costly water treatment plant. In all preferred scenarios, water intake is conducted from flood flows in order to avoid conflict with downstream agricultural demands. In addition to decentralized decision making and stakeholders’ participation, the proposed framework promotes the integration of the technical aspects such as the role of internal loading in lake eutrophication and separation of flood and non-flood flows in the off-stream lakes’ systems. Highlights A new framework for eutrophication management in artificial lakes is developed. Engagement of stakeholders supports the attainment of sustainable management plans. The contribution of internal loadings in lake management should not be overlooked. The scenarios are confirmed scientifically, economically, and socio-politically. Larger uncertainty intervals may lead to the selection of more expensive scenarios. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  10. [해외논문]   Smoothing analysis of slug tests data for aquifer characterization at laboratory scale  

    Aristodemo, Francesco (Corresponding author.) , Ianchello, Mario , Fallico, Carmine
    Journal of hydrology v.562 ,pp. 125 - 139 , 2018 , 0022-1694 ,

    초록

    Abstract The present paper proposes a smoothing analysis of hydraulic head data sets obtained by means of different slug tests introduced in a confined aquifer. Laboratory experiments were performed through a 3D large-scale physical model built at the University of Calabria. The hydraulic head data were obtained by a pressure transducer placed in the injection well and subjected to a processing operation to smooth out the high-frequency noise occurring in the recorded signals. The adopted smoothing techniques working in time, frequency and time-frequency domain are the Savitzky-Golay filter modeled by third-order polynomial, the Fourier Transform and two types of Wavelet Transform (Mexican hat and Morlet). The performances of the filtered time series of the hydraulic heads for different slug volumes and measurement frequencies were statistically analyzed in terms of optimal fitting of the classical Cooper’s equation. For practical purposes, the hydraulic heads smoothed by the involved techniques were used to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. The energy contents and the frequency oscillations of the hydraulic head variations in the aquifer were exploited in the time-frequency domain by means of Wavelet Transform as well as the non-linear features of the observed hydraulic head oscillations around the theoretical Cooper’s equation. Highlights Analysis of hydraulic heads from slug tests by a 3D laboratory model. SG filter, FT and two WTs were used to smooth out the noise in the hydraulic heads. The Mexican hat wavelet and a measurement frequency of 100 Hz gave optimal results. Energy contents and frequency oscillations were exploited by the Wavelet Transform.

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