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Journal of human evolution 5건

  1. [해외논문]   The evolution of bipedalism in hominids and reduced group size in chimpanzees: alternative responses to decreasing resource availability  

    Isbell, L.A. ; Young, T.P.
    Journal of human evolution v.30 no.5 ,pp. 389 - 397 , 1996 , 0047-2484 ,

    초록

    One hypothesis for the evolution of hominid bipedalism is that bipedalism was more efficient than quadrupedalism for long-distance terrestrial locomotion, and was favored when resources became scarcer and more widely separated during the drying of African forests in the Miocene. Here we extend this scenario for the evolution of bipedalism based on principles of behavioral ecology of extant primates. Daily travel distance is not only an increasing function of resource scarcity, but also of group size (because of intragroup scramble competition). When faced with Miocene drying, hominoids were forced to evolve either energetically more efficient locomotory abilities or smaller group sizes. The cost of the latter strategy is that smaller groups are less successful than larger groups in intergroup contest competition (smaller groups are supplanted from limiting resources). Among the earliest hominids, bipedalism may have been favored over small group size as an alternative energetic response to decreased resource availability. The alternative was to maintain quadrupedal locomotion but evolve fission-fusion grouping to reduce daily travel distance for individuals and hence, their energetic costs of travel. We suggest that this strategy represents the evolutionary pathway taken by chimpanzees. This divergence of strategies may have been a result of inherent differences in feeding ecology, but could also have been enhanced by the pre-empting of niche space by the two closely related and presumably competing hominoid ancestors of humans and chimpanzees. If so, it could have been a potential factor in the speciation process that led to modern humans and chimpanzees.

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  2. [해외논문]   Neandertal pedal proximal phalanges: diaphyseal loading patterns  

    Trinkaus, E. ; Hilton, C.E.
    Journal of human evolution v.30 no.5 ,pp. 399 - 425 , 1996 , 0047-2484 ,

    초록

    Neandertal proximal pedal phalanges have been described as short relative to foot length with relatively wide diaphyses, the latter purportedly to resist elevated levels of mediolateral loading during locomotion. Analysis of proximal pedal phalanges from samples of Neandertals, early modern humans, and recent small-scale and industrial society humans demonstrates that the Neandertals have moderately shorter proximal pedal phalanges with the middle (digits 2-4) phalanges having significantly wider diaphyses relative to the recent humans. The early modern humans have relatively abbreviated phalanges, similar to the Neandertals, and occupy an intermediate position with respect to relative phalangeal shaft breadth. These data suggest: (1) a higher frequency and/or level of mediolateral loading of the anterior foot among Upper Pleistocene humans related to contrasting behavioral patterns, and (2) a generally higher level of robusticity of the anterior foot with the elevated dorsoplantar stress on the phalanges being resisted more by extensor and flexor tendon tension and the mediolateral and torsional stresses being resisted by increased diaphyseal breadth. This study, in conjunction with other lower-limb morphological comparisons between Neandertals, early modern humans and recent humans, suggests gradual decreases in locomotor anatomy robusticity (and hence locomotor activity levels) through the later Upper Pleistocene and Holocene with a possible change in lower-limb loading patterns with the emergence of early modern humans.

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  3. [해외논문]   Laterality of limb function in wild chimpanzees of Gombe National Park: comprehensive study of spontaneous activities  

    Marchant, L.F. ; McGrew, W.C.
    Journal of human evolution v.30 no.5 ,pp. 427 - 443 , 1996 , 0047-2484 ,

    초록

    Resurgence of interest in laterality of hand function in nonhuman primates requires baseline knowledge of spontaneous hand-use in nature, in order to make sense of experimental studies in captivity. We present ethological data on 43 categories of limb movements exhibited by one community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. By focal-subject sampling, 42 individuals were observed at close-range over 4 months during their everyday activities. Laterality of hand function was largely absent, as both pooled results for the group and individual results rarely departed from 50:50 (ambilaterality). Neither age nor sex differences emerged. Nor did it matter if the subject was arboreal or terrestrial, or if the non-active hand was idle or engaged in postural support. Laterality was equally absent for unimanual and bimanual tasks. Lack of lateralization for limb movement in this natural population contrasts with findings of apparent right-handedness in captive chimpanzees. Unnatural postures and biased selection of measures in captive studies may account for these differences.

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  4. [해외논문]   The morphological affinities of the Plio-Pleistocene mandible from Dmanisi, Georgia  

    Brauer, G. ; Schultz, M.
    Journal of human evolution v.30 no.5 ,pp. 445 - 481 , 1996 , 0047-2484 ,

    초록

    The human mandible from Dmanisi, discovered in 1991, dates, according to current results, to probably the final Pliocene or early Pleistocene. It is thus of great importance for the understanding of early humans outside of Africa, especially because it, together with the remains from the nearby Ubeidiya site in Israel, is one of the few early finds from this region. The aim of the present study was to assess Dmanisi's affinities by comparing its major descriptive and metrical characteristics with those of a wide range ofHomofossils dated from ca.1.9 to 0.25Ma B.P. Original fossils from Africa and Asia, as well as a cast collection of the Zhoukoudian specimens, were used in this comparison. The analyses focus on features of the mandibular body and dimensions of the teeth. The metrical variables were also analysed with multivariate statistics. As the results show, many features and analyses reveal great overlap between earlyHomo/Homo habilisand chronologically defined subgroups ofHomo erectus. Nevertheless, Dmanisi exhibits clear affinities to theH. erectusrange. Despite its early date, this hominid possesses a number of progressive features (e.g. in the chin region, symphyseal cross-section, and teeth dimensions) which otherwise are more likely to occur in considerably laterH. erectusspecimens.

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  5. [해외논문]   ''Revealed'' ovulation in humans?  

    Small, M.F.
    Journal of human evolution v.30 no.5 ,pp. 483 - 488 , 1996 , 0047-2484 ,

    초록

    The human mandible from Dmanisi, discovered in 1991, dates, according to current results, to probably the final Pliocene or early Pleistocene. It is thus of great importance for the understanding of early humans outside of Africa, especially because it, together with the remains from the nearby Ubeidiya site in Israel, is one of the few early finds from this region. The aim of the present study was to assess Dmanisi's affinities by comparing its major descriptive and metrical characteristics with those of a wide range ofHomofossils dated from ca.1.9 to 0.25Ma B.P. Original fossils from Africa and Asia, as well as a cast collection of the Zhoukoudian specimens, were used in this comparison. The analyses focus on features of the mandibular body and dimensions of the teeth. The metrical variables were also analysed with multivariate statistics. As the results show, many features and analyses reveal great overlap between earlyHomo/Homo habilisand chronologically defined subgroups ofHomo erectus. Nevertheless, Dmanisi exhibits clear affinities to theH. erectusrange. Despite its early date, this hominid possesses a number of progressive features (e.g. in the chin region, symphyseal cross-section, and teeth dimensions) which otherwise are more likely to occur in considerably laterH. erectusspecimens.

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