본문 바로가기
HOME> 저널/프로시딩 > 저널/프로시딩 검색상세

저널/프로시딩 상세정보

권호별목차 / 소장처보기

H : 소장처정보

T : 목차정보

Cognitive psychology 5건

  1. [해외논문]   Editorial Board  


    Cognitive psychology v.99 ,pp. OFC , 2017 , 0010-0285 ,

    초록

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  2. [해외논문]   Editorial Board   SCIE SSCI


    Cognitive psychology v.99 ,pp. OFC - OFC , 2017 , 0010-0285 ,

    초록

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  3. [해외논문]   Enabling spontaneous analogy through heuristic change   SCIE SSCI

    Ormerod, Thomas C. (University of Sussex, UK ) , MacGregor, James N. (University of Victoria, BC, Canada)
    Cognitive psychology v.99 ,pp. 1 - 16 , 2017 , 0010-0285 ,

    초록

    Abstract Despite analogy playing a central role in theories of problem solving, learning and education, demonstrations of spontaneous analogical transfer are rare. Here, we present a theory of heuristic change for spontaneous analogical transfer, tested in four experiments that manipulated the experience of failure to solve a source problem prior to attempting a target problem. In Experiment 1, participants solved more source problems that contained an additional financial constraint designed to signal the inappropriateness of moves that maximized progress towards the goal. This constraint also led to higher rates of spontaneous analogical transfer to a superficially similar problem. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the effects of this constraint extend to superficially and structurally different analogs. Experiment 4 generalized the finding to a non-analogous target problem that also benefitted from inhibiting maximizing moves. The results indicate that spontaneous transfer can arise through experience during the solution of a source problem that alters the heuristic chosen for solving both analogical and non-analogical target problems. Highlights The paper introduces a new theory of heuristic change in analogical transfer. The studies provide a rare demonstration of spontaneous analogical transfer. Spontaneous analogical transfer is equally robust with near and far target problems. Experiment 4 uniquely demonstrates transfer from source problems to a non-analog. A new mechanism, heuristic change, is proposed for analogical transfer. Using analogical transfer in education requires heuristic as well as knowledge-based interventions.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  4. [해외논문]   Children's representation of abstract relations in relational/array match-to-sample tasks   SCIE SSCI

    Hochmann, Jean-Ré (CNRS, UMR 5304, Institut des Sciences Cognitives - Marc Jeannerod, 67 Bd Pinel, 69675 Bron, France ) , my (Department of Psychology, Harvard University, William James Hall, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA ) , Tuerk, Arin S. (Department of Psychology, UC Berkeley, Tolman Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1650, USA ) , Sanborn, Sophia (Department of Psychology, Harvard University, William James Hall, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA ) , Zhu, Rebecca (Department of Philosophy, New York University, 5 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA ) , Long, Robert (Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, United Kingdom ) , Dempster, Meg (Department of Psychology, Harvard University, William James Hall, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA) , Carey, Susan
    Cognitive psychology v.99 ,pp. 17 - 43 , 2017 , 0010-0285 ,

    초록

    Abstract Five experiments compared preschool children’s performance to that of adults and of non-human animals on match to sample tasks involving 2-item or 16-item arrays that varied according to their composition of same or different items (Array Match-to-Sample, AMTS). They establish that, like non-human animals in most studies, 3- and 4-year-olds fail 2-item AMTS (the classic relational match to sample task introduced into the literature by Premack, 1983), and that robust success is not observed until age 6. They also establish that 3-year-olds, like non-human animal species, succeed only when they are able to encode stimuli in terms of entropy, a property of an array (namely its internal variability), rather than relations among the individuals in the array (same vs. different), whereas adults solve both 2-item and 16-item AMTS on the basis of the relations same and different. As in the case of non-human animals, the acuity of 3- and 4-year-olds’ representation of entropy is insufficient to solve the 2-item same-different AMTS task. At age 4, behavior begins to contrast with that of non-human species. On 16-item AMTS, a subgroup of 4-year-olds induce a categorical rule matching all-same arrays to all-same arrays, while matching other arrays (mixed arrays of same and different items) to all-different arrays. These children tend to justify their choices using the words “same” and “different.” By age 4 a number of our participants succeed at 2-item AMTS, also justifying their choices by explicit verbal appeals using words for same and different. Taken together these results suggest that the recruitment of the relational representations corresponding to the meaning of these words contributes to the better performance over the preschool years at solving array match-to-sample tasks. Highlights Three- and most 4-year-olds struggle with the relational match-to-sample (RMTS). Three- and 4-year-olds succeed when arrays of 16 pictures are used instead of pairs. Their behavior is controlled by entropy (the internal variability of the array). A small number of 4-year-olds and 5-year-olds spontaneously succeed at RMTS. These children justify their choice using relational words: “same” and “different”.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   Compositional inductive biases in function learning   SCIE SSCI

    Schulz, Eric (Harvard University, United States ) , Tenenbaum, Joshua B. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States ) , Duvenaud, David (University of Toronto, Canada ) , Speekenbrink, Maarten (University College London, United Kingdom ) , Gershman, Samuel J. (Harvard University, United States)
    Cognitive psychology v.99 ,pp. 44 - 79 , 2017 , 0010-0285 ,

    초록

    Abstract How do people recognize and learn about complex functional structure? Taking inspiration from other areas of cognitive science, we propose that this is achieved by harnessing compositionality: complex structure is decomposed into simpler building blocks. We formalize this idea within the framework of Bayesian regression using a grammar over Gaussian process kernels, and compare this approach with other structure learning approaches. Participants consistently chose compositional (over non-compositional) extrapolations and interpolations of functions. Experiments designed to elicit priors over functional patterns revealed an inductive bias for compositional structure. Compositional functions were perceived as subjectively more predictable than non-compositional functions, and exhibited other signatures of predictability, such as enhanced memorability and reduced numerosity. Taken together, these results support the view that the human intuitive theory of functions is inherently compositional. Highlights This paper investigates how people recognize and learn about complex functional structure. We formalize this idea within the framework of Bayesian regression using a grammar over Gaussian process kernels. Our model provides a good account of participants’ completion, learning, perception, and memorization of functional structure paradigms Our results support the view that the human intuitive theory of functions is inherently compositional.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지

논문관련 이미지