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권호별목차 / 소장처보기

H : 소장처정보

T : 목차정보

Neuroscience 45건

  1. [해외논문]   Metabolomics identifies perturbations in amino acid metabolism in the prefrontal cortex of the learned helplessness rat model of depression  

    Zhou, X. ; Liu, L. ; Zhang, Y. ; Pu, J. ; Yang, L. ; Zhou, C. ; Yuan, S. ; Zhang, H. ; Xie, P.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 1 - 9 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Major depressive disorder is a serious psychiatric condition associated with high rates of suicide and is a leading cause of health burden worldwide. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of major depression are still essentially unclear. In our study, a non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex of the learned helplessness (LH) rat model of depression. Body-weight measurements and behavioral tests including the active escape test, sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, elevated plus-maze and open field test were used to assess changes in the behavioral spectrum after inescapable footshock stress. Rats in the stress group exhibited significant learned helpless and depression-like behaviors, while without any significant change in anxiety-like behaviors. Using multivariate and univariate statistical analysis, a total of 18 differential metabolites were identified after the footshock stress protocol. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and MetaboAnalyst were applied for predicted pathways and biological functions analysis. ''Amino Acid Metabolism, Molecule Transport, Small Molecule Biochemistry'' was the most significantly altered network in the LH model. Amino acid metabolism, particularly glutamate metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, was significantly perturbed in the prefrontal cortex of LH rats.

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  2. [해외논문]   Enkephalin and neuropeptide-Y interaction in the intergeniculate leaflet network, a part of the mammalian biological clock  

    Palus, K. ; Chrobok, L. ; Kepczynski, M. ; Lewandowski, M.H.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 10 - 20 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) is a flat thalamic nucleus implicated in the modulation of circadian rhythmicity. In rat, two main GABAergic subpopulations can be distinguished in the IGL: neurons synthesizing neuropeptide Y (NPY), which directly innervates the suprachiasmatic nuclei, and enkephalinergic cells, which connect contralaterally located leaflets. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of inner IGL neurotransmitters on the spontaneous and synaptic activity of IGL neurons. The data presented in this article provide evidence that enkephalin, and not NPY, could act upon the majority of IGL neurons. Moreover, we investigated the type of opioid receptor activated by enkephalin and showed that the μ-receptor is functionally predominant in the IGL. The application of met-enkephalin not only robustly hyperpolarized IGL neurons (both putatively NPY-synthesizing and putatively enkephalinergic neurons), but it also was able to inhibit GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Based on this and previous studies, we hypothesize that IGL enkephalinergic neurons may act as powerful interneurons that inhibit themselves and NPY-synthesizing neurons, also in the contralaterally located IGL.

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  3. [해외논문]   Associations between the CNTNAP2 gene, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and cognitive performance on the Stroop task  

    Zhu, B. ; Chen, C. ; Xue, G. ; Lei, X. ; Wang, Y. ; Li, J. ; Moyzis, R.K. ; Li, J. ; Dong, Q. ; Lin, C.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 21 - 29 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    The CNTNAP2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2) gene, highly expressed in the human prefrontal cortex, has been linked with autism and language impairment. Potential relationships between CNTNAP2, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and cognition have been suggested by previous clinical studies, but have not been directly examined in the same study. The current study collected structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data in 317 healthy Chinese adults, and examined associations between CNTNAP2 variants, DLPFC, and cognitive performance (measured by the Stroop task). After controlling for intracranial volume, sex, and age, the CNTNAP2 genetic polymorphism at SNP rs7809486 had the strongest association with bilateral DLPFC volume (p=0.00015 and 0.00014 for left and right DLPFC volumes, respectively), with GG homozygotes having greater bilateral DLPFC volumes and surface areas than the other genotypes. Furthermore, TT homozygotes of CNTNAP2 rs4726946 (a nearby SNP that had moderate linkage disequilibrium with rs7809486) had greater left DLPFC volume and surface area, and better cognitive performance than the other genotypes. Subjects with greater left DLPFC surface area had better cognitive performance. Importantly, the left DLPFC surface area mediated the association between the CNTNAP2 rs4726946 genotype and cognitive performance. This study provides the first evidence for associations among the CNTNAP2 gene, left DLPFC structure, and cognitive control.

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  4. [해외논문]   Posttraumatic administration of a sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine exerts neuroprotection via attenuating inflammation and autophagy  

    Wang, C.Q. ; Ye, Y. ; Chen, F. ; Han, W.C. ; Sun, J.M. ; Lu, X. ; Guo, R. ; Cao, K. ; Zheng, M.J. ; Liao, L.C.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 30 - 38 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    As a complex disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in long-term psychiatric changes and sensorimotor and cognitive impairments. The TBI-induced loss of memory and long-term cognitive dysfunction are related to mechanistic factors including an increased inflammatory response, autophagy, edema, and ischemia. Many published studies have offered evidence for the neuroprotective effects and anti-inflammatory properties of ketamine for TBI patients. Nonetheless, there is a limited understanding of the accurate mechanism that underlies the potential neuroprotective effects of ketamine. Herein, it can be shown that posttraumatic administration of ketamine at a sub-anesthetic dose (10mg/kg ketamine, every 24h up to 7days) can prevent the TBI-induced production of IL-6 and TNF-α, attenuate deficits of dendrites and spines and exert beneficial effects on memory and behavior. Moreover, studies show that ketamine may activate the mTOR signaling pathway by p-mTOR induction to down-regulate the expression of crucial autophagic proteins such as LC3 and Beclin-1. According to these findings, ameliorating secondary brain injury and anti-inflammatory properties is closely related to the neuroprotection of ketamine, which supports the use of ketamine as a potential therapy for patients with TBI to alleviate functional deficits.

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  5. [해외논문]   Postnatal maturation of mouse medullo-spinal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons  

    Orts-Del'Immagine, A. ; Trouslard, J. ; Airault, C. ; Hugnot, J.P. ; Cordier, B. ; Doan, T. ; Kastner, A. ; Wanaverbecq, N.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 39 - 54 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    The central canal along the spinal cord (SC.) and medulla is characterized by the presence of a specific population of neurons that contacts the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These medullo-spinal CSF-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) are identified by the selective expression of the polycystin kidney disease 2-like 1 ionic channel (PKD2L1 or polycystin-L). In adult, they have been shown to express doublecortin (DCX) and Nkx6.1, two markers of juvenile neurons along with the neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) typically expressed in mature neurons. They were therefore suggested to remain in a rather incomplete maturation state. The aim of this study was to assess whether such juvenile state is stable in postnatal animals or whether CSF-cNs may reach maturity at older stages than neurons in the parenchyma. We show, in the cervical SC. and the brainstem that, in relation to age, CSF-cN density declines and that their cell bodies become more distant from the cc, except in its ventral part. Moreover, in adults (from 1month) by comparison with neonatal mice, we show that CSF-cNs have evolved to a more mature state, as indicated by the increase in the percentage of cells positive for NeuN and of its level of expression. In parallel, CSF-cNs exhibit, in adult, lower DCX immunoreactivity and do not express PSA-NCAM and TUC4, two neurogenic markers. Nevertheless, CSF-cNs still share in adult characteristics of juvenile neurons such as the presence of phospho-CREB and DCX while NeuN expression remained low. This phenotype persists in 12-month-old animals. Thus, despite a pursuit of neuronal maturation during the postnatal period, CSF-cNs retain a durable low differentiated state.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   Development of neural population activity toward self-organized criticality  

    Yada, Y. ; Mita, T. ; Sanada, A. ; Yano, R. ; Kanzaki, R. ; Bakkum, D.J. ; Hierlemann, A. ; Takahashi, H.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 55 - 65 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development. One possible mechanism is developmental, and includes axonal elongation during synaptogenesis and subsequent synaptic pruning in combination with the maturation of GABAergic inhibition (i.e., the integration then fragmentation process). Because experimental evidence for this mechanism remains inconclusive, we studied the developmental variation of neuronal avalanches in dissociated cortical neurons using high-density complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microelectrode arrays (MEAs). The spontaneous activities of nine cultures were monitored using CMOS MEAs from 4 to 30days in vitro (DIV) at single-cell spatial resolution. While cells were immature, cultures demonstrated random-like patterns of activity and an exponential avalanche size distribution; this distribution was followed by a bimodal distribution, and finally a power-law-like distribution. The bimodal distribution was associated with a large-scale avalanche with a homogeneous spatiotemporal pattern, while the subsequent power-law distribution was associated with diverse patterns. These results suggest that the SoC emerges through a two-step process: the integration process accompanying the characteristic large-scale avalanche and the fragmentation process associated with diverse middle-size avalanches.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   Neuronal adaptation in the somatosensory system of rodents  

    Lampl, I. ; Katz, Y.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 66 - 76 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    The sensory systems in animals constantly monitor the environment and process salient and relevant features while subtracting background activity. This process requires continuous recalibration of neuronal gain based on recent history. Adaptation has been postulated to be the key mechanism by which neurons rapidly tune their response curves to represent the entire dynamic range of external inputs. Rodents heavily rely on their vibrissa system while gathering information about their surroundings using whisking. Neuronal adaptation is observed in all stages of sensory processing, from the whisker follicle through the brainstem and thalamus up to the barrel cortex. In this review, we discuss the intrinsic, synaptic and network mechanisms of adaptation such as short-term synaptic depression, inhibitory suppression, balance between excitation and inhibition as well as the role of cascading adaptation. Furthermore, we describe recent findings about the different intensity dependent adaptation properties in the two major somatosensory pathways and their possible implications about coding.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to long-term behavioral alterations in mice injected with lipopolysaccharide  

    Zhu, W. ; Cao, F.S. ; Feng, J. ; Chen, H.W. ; Wan, J.R. ; Lu, Q. ; Wang, J.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 77 - 84 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might affect the central nervous system by causing neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to brain damage and dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the role of nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in long-term behavioral alterations of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (5mg/kg). At different time points after injection, we assessed locomotor function with a 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system and the rotarod test; assessed recognition memory with the novel object recognition test; and assessed emotional abnormality (anhedonia and behavioral despair) with the tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test. We also assessed protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase-1 p10 in hippocampus by Western blotting; measured levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and IL-10 in hippocampus; measured TNFα and IL-1β in serum by ELISA; and evaluated microglial activity in hippocampus by Iba1 immunofluorescence. We found that LPS-injected mice displayed long-term depression-like behaviors and recognition memory deficit; elevated expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 p10; increased levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and TNFα; decreased levels of IL-10; and increased microglial activation. These effects were blocked by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone. The results demonstrate proof of concept that NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice, probably through enhanced inflammation, and that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition might alleviate peripheral and brain inflammation and thereby ameliorate long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice.

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  9. [해외논문]   Functional brain imaging of walking while talking - An fNIRS study  

    Metzger, F.G. ; Ehlis, A.C. ; Haeussinger, F.B. ; Schneeweiss, P. ; Hudak, J. ; Fallgatter, A.J. ; Schneider, S.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 85 - 93 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Since functional imaging of whole body movements is not feasible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study presents in vivo functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a suitable technique to measure body movement effects on fronto-temporo-parietal cortical activation in single- and dual-task paradigms. Previous fNIRS applications in studies addressing whole body movements were typically limited to the assessment of prefrontal brain areas. The current study investigated brain activation in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex of both hemispheres using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with two large 4x4 probe-sets with 24 channels each during single and dual gait tasks. 12 young healthy adults were measured using fNIRS walking on a treadmill: the participants performed two single-task (ST) paradigms (walking at different speeds, i.e. 3 and 5km/h) and a dual task (DT) paradigm where a verbal fluency task (VFT) had to be executed while walking at 3km/h. The results show an increase of activation in Broca's area during the more advanced conditions (ST 5km/h vs. ST 3km/h, DT vs. ST 3km/h, DT vs. 5km/h), while the corresponding area on the right hemisphere was also activated. DT paradigms including a cognitive task in conjunction with whole body movements elicit wide-spread cortical activation patterns across fronto-temporo-parietal areas. An elaborate assessment of these activation patterns requires more extensive fNIRS assessments than the traditional prefrontal investigations, e.g. as performed with portable fNIRS devices.

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  10. [해외논문]   Loss of dopamine D1 receptors and diminished D1/5 receptor-mediated ERK phosphorylation in the periaqueductal gray after spinal cord lesion  

    Voulalas, P.J. ; Ji, Y. ; Jiang, L. ; Asgar, J. ; Ro, J.Y. ; Masri, R.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 94 - 105 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Neuropathic pain resulting from spinal cord injury is often accompanied by maladaptive plasticity of the central nervous system, including the opioid receptor-rich periaqueductal gray (PAG). Evidence suggests that sensory signaling via the PAG is robustly modulated by dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors, but the effect of damage to the spinal cord on D1 and D2 receptor protein expression and function in the PAG has not been examined. Here we show that 21days after a T10 or C6 spinothalamic tract lesion, both mice and rats display a remarkable decline in the expression of D1 receptors in the PAG, revealed by western blot analysis. These changes were associated with a significant reduction in hindpaw withdrawal thresholds in lesioned animals compared to sham-operated controls. We investigated the consequences of diminished D1 receptor levels by quantifying D1-like receptor-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1,2 and CREB, events that have been observed in numerous brain structures. In naive animals, western blot analysis revealed that ERK1,2, but not CREB phosphorylation was significantly increased in the PAG by the D1-like agonist SKF 81297. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that SKF 81297 increased ERK1,2 phosphorylation in the PAG of sham animals. However, in lesioned animals, basal pERK1,2 levels were elevated and did not significantly increase after exposure to SKF 81297. Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that molecular adaptations resulting in a decrease in D1 receptor expression and signaling in the PAG are a consequence of SCL.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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