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Earth surface processes and landforms : the journa... 22건

  1. [해외논문]   Cover Image  

    Serlet, Alyssa J. , Gurnell, Angela M. , Zolezzi, Guido , Wharton, Geraldene , Belleudy, Philippe , Jourdain, Camille
    Earth surface processes and landforms : the journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group v.43 no.9 ,pp. i - i , 2018 , 0197-9337 ,

    초록

    The cover image, by Alyssa J. Serlet et al., is based on the Research Article Biomorphodynamics of alternate bars in a channelized, regulated river: An integrated historical and modelling analysis , https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4349 . Image Credit: Atlas de Marchetti, Archives DEpartementales de la Savoie GEoportail ⓒIGN‐France‐2018.

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  2. [해외논문]   Issue Information  


    Earth surface processes and landforms : the journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group v.43 no.9 ,pp. 1737 - 1738 , 2018 , 0197-9337 ,

    초록

    No abstract is available for this article.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Biomorphodynamics of alternate bars in a channelized, regulated river: An integrated historical and modelling analysis  

    Serlet, Alyssa J. (Department of Civil Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy) , Gurnell, Angela M. (School of Geography, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK) , Zolezzi, Guido (Department of Civil Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy) , Wharton, Geraldene (School of Geography, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK) , Belleudy, Philippe (University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, Grenoble INP, IGE, Grenoble, France) , Jourdain, Camille (University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, Grenoble INP, IGE, Grenoble, France)
    Earth surface processes and landforms : the journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group v.43 no.9 ,pp. 1739 - 1756 , 2018 , 0197-9337 ,

    초록

    Abstract The development of alternate bars in channelized rivers can be explained theoretically as an instability of the riverbed when the active channel width to depth ratio exceeds a threshold. However, the development of a vegetation cover on the alternate bars of some channelized rivers and its interactions with bar morphology have not been investigated in detail. Our study focused on the co‐evolution of alternate bars and vegetation along a 33 km reach of the IsEre River, France. We analysed historical information to investigate the development of alternate bars and their colonization by vegetation within a straightened, embanked river subject to flow regulation, sediment mining, and vegetation management. Over an 80 year period, bar density decreased, bar length increased, and bar mobility slowed. Vegetation encroachment across bar surfaces accompanied these temporal changes and, once established, vegetation cover persisted, shifting the overall system from an unvegetated to a vegetated dynamic equilibrium state. The unvegetated morphodynamics of the impressively regular sequence of alternate bars that developed in the IsEre following channelization is consistent with previous theoretical morphodynamic work. However, the apparent triggering dynamics of vegetation colonization needs to be investigated, based on complex biophysical instability processes. If instability related to vegetation colonization is confirmed, further work needs to focus on the relevance of initial conditions for this instability, and on related feedback effects such as how the morphodynamics of bare‐sediment alternate bars may have affected vegetation development and, in turn, how vegetation has created a new dynamic equilibrium state. Copyright ⓒ 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  4. [해외논문]   Spatial modeling of pyroclastic cover deposit thickness (depth to bedrock) in peri‐volcanic areas of Campania (southern Italy)  

    Del Soldato, Matteo (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy) , Pazzi, Veronica (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy) , Segoni, Samuele (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy) , De Vita, Pantaleone (Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Resources, Federico II University of Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant'Angelo, Napoli, Italy) , Tofani, Veronica (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy) , Moretti, Sandro (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy)
    Earth surface processes and landforms : the journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group v.43 no.9 ,pp. 1757 - 1767 , 2018 , 0197-9337 ,

    초록

    Abstract In this study, the main focus is the application and improvement of four empirical models, which account for the pyroclastic cover deposit thickness (PCDT) spatial distribution with respect to the bedrock surrounding the Somma‐Vesuvius volcano (Campania, southern Italy). Three models, which are already known in the literature, link the depth to bedrock to the morphological features of a slope. An original model called SEPT (slope exponential pyroclastic thickness) is presented in this manuscript and combines the initial total thickness of ash‐fall pyroclastic cover with the slope gradient. All models were applied and validated using field measurements derived from this and preceding studies in the study area. The main finding is that the spatial distribution of the depth to bedrock in mountainous peri‐volcanic areas mainly depends on the initial thickness of air‐fallen material at a given position and slope angle. These findings allowed for the recognition of an ash‐fall pyroclastic depositional environment that is characterized by different processes from those existing in other geomorphological frameworks and in which the soil thickness along the slopes is controlled by the weathering of bedrock and the formation of soil in situ . Finally, in this research, a reliable approach is proposed that is also applicable to other peri‐volcanic areas of the world to assess the spatial distribution of the depth to bedrock, which is a fundamentally important parameter in distributed geomorphologic and hydrologic modeling. ⓒ 2018 The Authors. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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  5. [해외논문]   Tipping points in Texas rivers  

    Phillips, Jonathan D. (Earth Surface Systems Program, Department of Geography, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA)
    Earth surface processes and landforms : the journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group v.43 no.9 ,pp. 1768 - 1781 , 2018 , 0197-9337 ,

    초록

    Abstract Anticipating geomorphic tipping points requires that we learn from the past. Major geomorphic changes in coastal plain rivers of Texas resulting in river metamorphosis or regime shifts were identified and the major driving factors determined. Eleven such transformations – possible tipping points – were identified from contemporary observations, historical records, and Quaternary reconstructions. Two of the tipping points (between general aggrading and degrading valley states) are associated with reversals in a fundamental system control (sea‐level). One (stable or aggrading versus degrading channels) is associated with an abrupt change in sediment supply due to dam construction, and two others (changes from meandering to anastomosing channel patterns, and different anastomosis styles) are similarly related to changes in sediment supply and/or transport capacity, but with additional elements of historical contingency. Three tipping points are related to avulsions. One, from a regime dominated by re‐occupation of former channels to one dominated by progradation into flood basins, is driven by progressive long‐term filling of incised valleys. Another, nodal avulsions, is triggered by disturbances associated with tectonic uplift or listric faults. The third, avulsions and related valley metamorphosis in unfilled incised valleys, is due to fundamental dynamical instabilities within the fluvial system. This synthesis and analysis suggests that geomorphic tipping points are sometimes associated with general extrinsic or intrinsic (to the fluvial system) environmental change, independent of any disturbances or instabilities. Others are associated with natural (e.g. tectonic) or human (dams) disturbances, and still others with intrinsic geomorphic instabilities. This suggests future tipping points will be equally diverse with respect to their drivers and dynamics. Copyright ⓒ 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  6. [해외논문]   Landslides control the spatial and temporal variation of channel width in southern Taiwan: Implications for landscape evolution and cascading hazards in steep, tectonically active landscapes  

    Yanites, Brian J. (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN ) , Mitchell, Nate A. (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN ) , Bregy, Joshua C. (Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN ) , Carlson, Grace A. (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN ) , Cataldo, Kirstyn (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN ) , Holahan, Margaret (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN ) , Johnston, Graham H. (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN ) , Nelson, Amelia (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN ) , Valenza, Jeffery (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN ) , Wanker, Matthew (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN)
    Earth surface processes and landforms : the journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group v.43 no.9 ,pp. 1782 - 1797 , 2018 , 0197-9337 ,

    초록

    Abstract Intense precipitation or seismic events can generate clustered mass movement processes across a landscape. These rare events have significant impacts on the landscape, however, the rarity of such events leads to uncertainty in how they impact the entire geomorphic system over a range of timescales. Taiwan is steep, tectonically active, and prone to landslide and debris flows, especially when exposed to heavy rainfall events. Typhoon Morakot made landfall in Taiwan in August of 2009, causing widespread landslides in southern Taiwan. The south to north trend in valley relief in southern Taiwan leads to spatial variability in landslide susceptibility providing an opportunity to infer the long‐term impact of such landslide events on channel morphology. We use pre‐ and post‐typhoon imagery to quantify the propagating impact of this event on channel width as the debris is routed through the landscape. The results show the importance of cascading hazards from landslides on landscape evolution based on patterns of channel width (both pre‐ and post‐typhoon) and hillslope gradients in 20 basins along strike in southern Taiwan. Prior to Typhoon Morakot, the river channels in the central part of the study area were about 3–10 times wider than the channels in the south. Following the typhoon, aggradation and widening was also a maximum in these central to northern basins where hillslope gradients and channel steepness is high, accentuating the pre‐typhoon pattern. The results further show that the narrowest channels are located where channel steepness is the lowest, an observation inconsistent with a detachment‐limited model for river evolution. We infer this pattern is indicative of a strong role of sediment supply, and associated landslide events, on long‐term channel evolution. These findings have implications across a range of spatial and temporal scales including understanding the cascade of hazards in steep landscapes and geomorphic interpretation of channel morphology. Copyright ⓒ 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  7. [해외논문]   Sediment budget controls on foredune height: Comparing simulation model results with field data  

    Davidson‐ (Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada) , Arnott, Robin (College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia) , Hesp, Patrick (Department of Geography and Environment, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB, Canada) , Ollerhead, Jeff (School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA) , Walker, Ian (Earth, Environmental and Geographic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, Kelowna, BC, Canada) , Bauer, Bernard (Department of Geography, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, Lancashire, UK) , Delgado‐ (College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia) , Fernandez, Irene , Smyth, Thomas
    Earth surface processes and landforms : the journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group v.43 no.9 ,pp. 1798 - 1810 , 2018 , 0197-9337 ,

    초록

    Abstract The form, height and volume of coastal foredunes reflects the long‐term interaction of a suite of nearshore and aeolian processes that control the amount of sand delivered to the foredune from the beach versus the amount removed or carried inland. In this paper, the morphological evolution of more than six decades is used to inform the development of a simple computer model that simulates foredune growth. The suggestion by others that increased steepness of the seaward slope will retard sediment supply from the beach to the foredune due to development of a flow stagnation zone in front of the foredune, hence limiting foredune growth, was examined. Our long‐term data demonstrate that sediment can be transferred from the beach to the foredune, even with a steep foredune stoss slope, primarily because much of the sediment transfer takes place under oblique rather than onshore winds. During such conditions, the apparent aspect ratio of the dune to the oncoming flow is less steep and conditions are not as favourable for the formation of a stagnation zone. The model shows that the rate of growth in foredune height varies as a function of sediment input from the beach and erosion due to storm events, as expected, but it also demonstrates that the rate of growth in foredune height per unit volume increase will decrease over time, which gives the perception of an equilibrium height having been reached asymptotically. As the foredune grows in size, an increasing volume of sediment is needed to yield a unit increase in height, therefore the apparent growth rate appears to slow. Copyright ⓒ 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  8. [해외논문]   Turbulent flow structures and geomorphic characteristics of a mining affected alluvial channel  

    Barman, Bandita (Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India) , Kumar, Bimlesh (Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India) , Sarma, Arup Kumar (Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India)
    Earth surface processes and landforms : the journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group v.43 no.9 ,pp. 1811 - 1824 , 2018 , 0197-9337 ,

    초록

    Abstract Sediment mining in rivers may have a major impact on river geomorphology and research is required to quantify these impacts. In this research, experimental studies were conducted to analyse the morphological changes of channel bed and the turbulent characteristics of flow in the presence of mining. The channel bed profile shows erosion at the bank of the pit and that the erosion expands to the whole width of the channel and propagates downstream with time. The deposition of sediment occurs along the upstream edge of the pit and the depth of the pit decreases with time. Velocity reversal occurs at the central bottom of the pit related to a recirculation zone. Reynolds shear stress and the turbulent intensities become higher in the mining pit region and downstream of it as compared to the upstream section, causing a more rapid movement of bed particles. Analysis of the bursting phenomenon shows that the contribution of sweep and ejection events to the total Reynolds shear stress is more dominant over outward and inward interaction events. The dominance of the sweep event over ejection is observed at the near‐bed region for all the sections, but the depth range of dominance of sweep events in the pit and downstream of the pit is found to be more than the upstream. The increase in thickness is responsible for the increase in bed material transport. The increased sediment transport capacity at the mining pit and downstream of it caused the deformation and lowering of channel bed downstream. An empirical formulation of bedload transport for mining induced channels is derived from two different sized uniform bed materials. Copyright ⓒ 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  9. [해외논문]   Modelling feedbacks between geomorphological and riparian vegetation responses under climate change in a Mediterranean context  

    Martí (Department of Sistemas y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain) , nez‐ (Faculty of Geosciences, University Utrecht, PO‐box 80115, 3508, TC, Utrecht, The Netherlands) , Ferná (Faculty of Geosciences, University Utrecht, PO‐box 80115, 3508, TC, Utrecht, The Netherlands) , ndez, Vanesa (Department of Sistemas y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain) , Van Oorschot, Mijke (Department of Sistemas y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain) , De Smit, Jaco , Gonzá , lez del Tá , nago, Marta , Buijse, Anthonie D.
    Earth surface processes and landforms : the journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group v.43 no.9 ,pp. 1825 - 1835 , 2018 , 0197-9337 ,

    초록

    Abstract Climate change is expected to alter temperatures and precipitation patterns, affecting river flows and hence riparian corridors. In this context we have explored the potential evolution of riparian corridors under a dryness gradient of flow regimes associated with climate change in a Mediterranean river. We have applied an advanced bio‐hydromorphodynamic model incorporating interactions between hydro‐morphodynamics and vegetation. Five scenarios, representing drier conditions and more extreme events, and an additional reference scenario without climate change, have been designed and extended until the year 2100. The vegetation model assesses colonization, growth and mortality of Salicaceae species. We analysed the lower course of the CurueNo River, a free flowing gravel bed river (NW Spain), as a representative case study of the Mediterranean region. Modelling results reveal that climate change will affect both channel morphology and riparian vegetation in terms of cover, age distribution and mortality. Reciprocal interactions between flow conditions and riparian species as bio‐engineers are predicted to promote channel narrowing, which becomes more pronounced as dryness increases. Reductions in seedling cover and increases in sapling and mature forest cover are predicted for all climate change scenarios compared with the reference scenario, and the suitable area for vegetation development declines and shifts towards lower floodplain elevations. Climate change also leads to younger vegetation becoming more subject to uprooting and flooding. The predicted reduction in suitable establishment areas and the narrowing of vegetated belts threatens the persistence of the current riparian community. This study highlights the usefulness of advanced bio‐hydromorphodynamic modelling for assessing climate change effects on fluvial landscapes. It also illustrates the need to consider climate change in river management to identify appropriate adaptation measures for riparian ecosystems. Copyright ⓒ 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  10. [해외논문]   An updated method for estimating landslide‐event magnitude  

    Tanyaş (University of Twente, Faculty of Geo‐Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), AE, PO Box 217, 7500, Enschede, The Netherlands) , , Hakan (US Geological Survey, Geologic Hazards Science Center, Golden, Colorado, USA) , Allstadt, Kate E. (University of Twente, Faculty of Geo‐Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), AE, PO Box 217, 7500, Enschede, The Netherlands) , van Westen, Cees J.
    Earth surface processes and landforms : the journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group v.43 no.9 ,pp. 1836 - 1847 , 2018 , 0197-9337 ,

    초록

    Abstract Summary statistics derived from the frequency–area distribution (FAD) of inventories of triggered landslides allows for direct comparison of landslides triggered by one event (e.g. earthquake, rainstorm) with another. Such comparisons are vital to understand links between the landslide‐event and the environmental characteristics of the area affected. This could lead to methods for rapid estimation of landslide‐event magnitude, which in turn could lead to estimates of the total triggered landslide area. Previous studies proposed that the FAD of landslides follows an inverse power‐law, which provides the basis to model the size distribution of landslides and to estimate landslide‐event magnitude ( mLS ), which quantifies the severity of the event. In this study, we use a much larger collection of earthquake‐induced landslide (EQIL) inventories ( n = 45) than previous studies to show that size distributions are much more variable than previously assumed. We present an updated model and propose a method for estimating mLS and its uncertainty that better fits the observations and is more reproducible, robust, and consistent than existing methods. We validate our model by computing mLS for all of the inventories in our dataset and comparing that with the total landslide areas of the inventories. We show that our method is able to estimate the total landslide area of the events in this larger inventory dataset more successfully than the existing methods. ⓒ 2018 The Authors. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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