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Anatomy and embryology 11건

  1. [해외논문]   Expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) during the first molar development in the mouse  

    Obara, Nobuko ; Takeda, Masako
    Anatomy and embryology v.187 no.3 ,pp. 209 - 219 , 1993 , 0340-2061 ,

    초록

    Abstract NCAM, the neural cell adhesion molecule, was immunolocalized in the mandibular first molar tooth germ of the mouse. NCAM was first detected in the tooth germ of the late bud stage, where only the cells in the outer part of the condensed mesenchyme (primitive dental follicle) exhibited faint immunoreactivity. The entire dental follicle was intensely immunostained for NCAM from cap stage to the stage when root formation started. During root formation, NCAM disappeared from the follicular tissue surrounding the cervical root as well as from the part covering the crown top. This loss of NCAM proceeded in the direction of the root apex, but even after the tooth had achieved functional occlusion, NCAM was still expressed by the mesenchymal cells adjacent to the root apex. On the other hand, NCAM was negative in the dental papilla until birth. After birth, NCAM-immunoreactivity appeared in the basal portion of the dental papilla, but this NCAM-positive area gradually diminished in width during the root elongation. Instead, another NCAM-positive zone appeared in the core of the pulp during root formation. Even in the tooth that had already erupted, the pulp core contained cells that were strongly positive for NCAM immunostaining. In addition to its expression in the above two mesenchymal cell lineages, NCAM was transiently expressed by epithelial components of the tooth germ, some of the cells of the dental lamina and the enamel organ. The results suggest that NCAM participates in several processes of tooth development.

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  2. [해외논문]   Differentiation of functional hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells from immature hepatocytes of the fetal mouse in vitro  

    Shiojiri, Nobuyoshi ; Mizuno, Takeo
    Anatomy and embryology v.187 no.3 ,pp. 221 - 229 , 1993 , 0340-2061 ,

    초록

    Abstract Differentiation of functional hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells from immature hepatocytes was analysed in vitro. When fetal mouse liver fragments containing immature hepatocytes but no bile ducts were cultured organotypically, the immature hepatocytes differentiated into large hepatocytes. Some of these expressed bile duct markers such as cytokeratin and Dolichos biflorus agglutinin-binding sites, though only to a small extent, and typical intrahepatic bile duct cells failed to differentiate. Dexamethasone stimulated immature hepatocytes to differentiate into both mature hepatocyte and biliary epithelial cell lineages. Especially in the liver fragments cultured on Matrigel, dexamethasone stimulated the expression of bile duct markers (such as cytokeratin and binding sites for two types of lectin) in the immature hepatocytes. These results support the idea that immature hepatocytes can differentiate into both mature hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells during normal development of the mouse liver, and suggest that glucocorticoids stimulate both these differentiation pathways. It also seems that basal laminar components may play a role in bile duct differentiation.

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  3. [해외논문]   Functional associations between collagen fibre orientation and locomotor strain direction in cortical bone of the equine radius  

    Riggs, C. M. ; Lanyon, L. E. ; Boyde, A.
    Anatomy and embryology v.187 no.3 ,pp. 231 - 238 , 1993 , 0340-2061 ,

    초록

    Abstract A novel technique for determining the collagen fibre orientation pattern of cross-sections of cortical bone was used to study mid-diaphyseal sections from the equine radius. Several in vivo strain gauge studies have demonstrated that this bone is loaded in bending during locomotion in such a way that the cranial cortex is consistently subjected to longitudinal tensile strains and the caudal cortex to longitudinal compressive strains. Twenty-three radii from 17 horses were studied. All the bones obtained from adult horses exhibited a consistent pattern of collagen fibre orientation across the cortex. The cranial cortex, subjected to intermittent tension, and the lateral and medial cortices, through which the neutral axis passes, contained predominantly longitudinally oriented collagen fibres. The caudal cortex, subjected to longitudinal compression during life, contained predominantly oblique/transverse collagen. This pattern was less evident in bones from foals. Microscopic analysis of the bones studied showed that primary lamellar bone was composed of predominantly longitudinal collagen fibres, irrespective of cortex. However, there was a strong relationship between cortical location and fibre orientation within remodelled bone. Secondary osteons which formed in the caudal (compressive) cortex contained predominantly oblique/transverse collagen, while those which formed elsewhere contained longitudinal collagen. This observation explained the developmental appearance of the characteristic macroscopic pattern of collagen fibre orientation across the whole cortex in the adult. These findings provide evidence for the existence of a relationship between the mechanical function of a bone with its architecture, and now demonstrate that it extends to the molecular level.

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  4. [해외논문]   Mechanical implications of collagen fibre orientation in cortical bone of the equine radius  

    Riggs, C. M. ; Vaughan, L. C. ; Evans, G. P. ; Lanyon, L. E. ; Boyde, A.
    Anatomy and embryology v.187 no.3 ,pp. 239 - 248 , 1993 , 0340-2061 ,

    초록

    Abstract Mechanical test specimens were prepared from the cranial and caudal cortices of radii from eight horses. These were subjected to destructive tests in either tension or compression. The ultimate stress, elastic modulus and energy absorbed to failure were calculated in either mode of loading. Analysis was performed on the specimens following mechanical testing to determine their density, mineral content, mineral density distribution and histological type. A novel technique was applied to sections from each specimen to quantify the predominant collagen fibre orientation of the bone near the plane of fracture. The collagen map for each bone studied was in agreement with the previously observed pattern of longitudinal orientation in the cranial cortex and more oblique to transverse collagen in the caudal cortex. Bone from the cranial cortex had a significantly higher ultimate tensile stress (UTS) than that from the caudal cortex (160 MPa vs 104 MPa; P P P P

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  5. [해외논문]   Proliferative activity of the developing seminiferous epithelium during prespermatogenesis in the golden hamster testis measured by bromodeoxyuridine labeling  

    Miething, Andreas
    Anatomy and embryology v.187 no.3 ,pp. 249 - 258 , 1993 , 0340-2061 ,

    초록

    Abstract Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeling was used to study the cell kinetics of the developing seminiferous epithelium in the testes of golden hamsters aged 10.5 to 27.5 days post conception (dpc), i.e., during a period beginning one developmental day before testicular differentiation (11.5 dpc) and extending to the appearance of the first “mature” spermatogonia. Supporting (Sertoli) cells continuously proliferate throughout the period studied. Labeling indices amount to about 30% between the 10.5th and 16.5th dpc, and subsequently decrease to levels below 10% on the 26.5th and 27.5th dpc. Germ cells (prespermatogonia) proliferate between the 10.5th and 15.5th dpc and again, after a period of mitotic quiescence, from the 24.5th dpc onwards. This pattern of prespermatogonial proliferation substantiates and further specifies the successive appearance of M -prespermatogonia (10.5th to 15.5th dpc: proliferating), T 1 -prespermatogonia (16.5th to 23.5th dpc: quiescent), and T 2 -prespermatogonia (24.5th to 27.5th dpc: proliferating). Thus, the M -prespermatogonial phase of germ cell proliferation is shown to commence at least 24 h before testicular differentiation. Transitions from M - to T 1 -phase and from T 1 -to T 2 -phase are rather abrupt. Both the latter observation and the comparison with oogonial development in the female at the corresponding time (onset of meiosis) indicate the presence of an underlying control mechanism operative during prespermatogenic development. Due to different nuclear staining patterns, the BrdU-labeling method allows temporal subdivision of the S-phase, thus opening up prospects of more detailed cell-kinetic analyses of the seminiferous epithelium.

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  6. [해외논문]   Differentiation of the mammalian retinal pigment epithelium in vitro: Influence of presumptive retinal neuroepithelium and head mesenchyme  

    Buse, Eberhard ; Eichmann, Thomas ; deGroot, Heink ; Leker, Anja
    Anatomy and embryology v.187 no.3 ,pp. 259 - 268 , 1993 , 0340-2061 ,

    초록

    Abstract The ancestor cells of the pigment epithelium of the mammalian eye are derived from the neuroepithelial cells of the neural plate. They are neurally determined in the process of neurulation but finally decide to follow the pigment cell lineage, whereas the adjacent tissue develops into the neuroretina and the optic stalk. This decision is most probably made in the developmental stage of eye cup formation. The pigment epithelium becomes restricted to the outer leaf of the eye cup and does not encroach on the adjacent neuroepithelial tissues of the internal leaf and the eye stalk. It is therefore supposed to be channelled by a locally confined determinant factor that has not yet been identified. In the present study, development of the mammalian eye and the neural versus pigment cell decision were investigated in mouse embryos. Three approaches were used to discover the source of the putative determinant involved in the process of neuroepithelial decision. First, eye primordia were cultured from stage 11 embryos (0 somites, early neural plate stage, embryonic day 7 1/2–8) to stage 16 embryos (34 somites, neural tube stage, ed 10); this is prior to pigment cell induction. The eye primordia were first cultured in head segments and their natural position. In these experiments, 50% of the ocular neuroepithelia developed along the nerve cell and glial cell lineage. However, the other 50% of the cultured specimens partly developed into pigment epithelia. In these specimens the determinant factors had obviously remained functionally intact in vitro. In the second type of experiment, the eye primordia were also cultured within the head segments, but with the prospective neuroretina selectively removed. This experiment should show whether the inner layer of the eye cup (the prospective neuroretina) is involved in the neuroepithelial lineage decision. In these experiments 90% of the cultured eye primordia failed to develop pigmented cells. The prospective neuroretina was therefore considered as a candidate for the production of an inductive factor. Finally, eye primordia from stage 14–15 embryos (13–29 somites, ed 9–9 1/2) were either transplanted into heterotopic tissues, such as mesenchymal organs, neuroepithelium or heterochronic muscle, or grown as controls in their natural position and tissue environment. In these conditions both transplanted eye primordia and controls bore pigmented epithelium. Hence, the lineage decision, whether to form neural or pigment cell, remained undisturbed in all epitopes tested. On the basis of these experiments, it seemed unlikely that the development of pigment cells was initiated by a mesenchyme-derived factor exclusively produced near the eye vesicle.

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  7. [해외논문]   Fibroblast growth factor induces primitive streak formation in rabbit pre-implantation embryos in vitro  

    Hrabě de Angelis, M. ; Kirchner, C.
    Anatomy and embryology v.187 no.3 ,pp. 269 - 273 , 1993 , 0340-2061 ,

    초록

    Abstract Culturing of rabbit pre-implantation embryos was performed in Ham's F10 medium supplemented with polyvinylpyrrolidone. Under these culture conditions, day 6 post coitum blastocysts increased their diameter within 24 h to 80% of that of day 7 blastocysts grown in vivo. Despite this substained growth, the embryonic disc remained undifferentiated with clear signs of degeneration after 24 h of culture. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was able to overcome this developmental block. After 12 h of culture, day 6 blastocysts showed pear-shaped embryonic discs, and after 24 h, the primitive streak with Hensen's node was visible. The bFGF had no comparable effects on day 5 and day 7 blastocysts. The embryonic discs of day 5 blastocysts degenerated, even in the presence of bFGF, whereas day 7 blastocysts were able to form their primitive streak, also in the absence of bFGF. TGF &bgr; 1 did not promote embryonic development in vitro. The data indicate that the onset of mesoderm formation in the rabbit is controlled by a growth factor of the FGF-family.

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  8. [해외논문]   Loss of mitotic activity and the expression of vimentin in glomerular epithelial cells of developing human kidneys  

    Nagata, Michio ; Yamaguchi, Yutaka ; Ito, Katsumi
    Anatomy and embryology v.187 no.3 ,pp. 275 - 279 , 1993 , 0340-2061 ,

    초록

    Abstract Glomerular epithelial cells (GECs) have been considered as post-mitotic cells. In order to establish the stage when GECs stop dividing, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA/cyclin) in GECs during glomerulogenesis in human kidneys was studied by the streptavidin-biotin staining technique with monoclonal antibodies. Antibody specific for PCNA/cyclin reacted with almost all the cell nuclei of nephrogenic vesicles, as well as those of S-shaped bodies, the cells of which in the lower limb are progenitors of GECs. However, this reaction was markedly reduced in GECs at the capillary loop stage and entirely disappeared at the maturational stage. In contrast to the expression of PCNA/cyclin, vimentin-specific antibody did not react with nephrogenic vesicles and the lower limb of S-shaped bodies, whereas vimentin was ubiquitously expressed in the GECs at the capillary loop stage, as well as at the maturational stage. Furthermore, these two antigens were not co-expressed in the same glomerulus during glomerulogenesis, as revealed by analysis of serial sections. These results lead to the conclusion that expression of PCNA/cyclin and vimentin during glomerulogenesis is fairly stage-dependent, and GECs rapidly lose their mitotic activity at the capillary loop stage.

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  9. [해외논문]   Experimental study on the formation of the epicardium in chick embryos  

    Männer, Jörg
    Anatomy and embryology v.187 no.3 ,pp. 281 - 289 , 1993 , 0340-2061 ,

    초록

    Abstract In chick embryos, the formation of the epicardium proceeds from the attachment of a secondary sinuventricular mesocardium. This mesocardium is formed by the adhesion of pericardial villi with the dorsal surface of the heart. It was the aim of this study to clarify the role of the pericardial villi in the formation of the epicardium. For this purpose, the contact between the pericardial villi and the heart was prevented by placement of a piece of the shell membrane between them. After re-incubation, the hearts of the experimental embryos could be assigned to one of two different groups: hearts completely lacking a secondary mesocardium (Group A), and hearts without the sinu-ventricular but with a dystopic secondary mesocardium (Group B). In Group A, the formation of the epicardium and subepicardial mesenchyme was found to be severely disturbed. In Group B, the formation of the epicardium proceeded from the point of attachment of a dystopic secondary mesocardium; defective development of the subepicardial mesenchyme was not encountered. These results support the view that the epicardium is derived from the pericardial epithelium.

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  10. [해외논문]   Morphological evidence for secondary formation of the tail gut in the rat embryo  

    Gajović, Srećko ; Kostović-Knežević, Ljiljana ; Švajger, Anton
    Anatomy and embryology v.187 no.3 ,pp. 291 - 297 , 1993 , 0340-2061 ,

    초록

    Abstract The secondary body formation is a developmental mechanism occurring in the caudal part of the embryo in which embryonic structures arise from a mass of mesenchymal cells without previous formation of germ layers. The formation of the tail gut by this mechanism was investigated on transverse serial semithin and ultrathin sections of 12-, 13-, 14- and 15-day rat embryo tails. The tail gut, together with the tail portion of the notochord, originates from an axial mass of condensed mesenchymal cells named tail cord. Formation of the tail gut involves the appearance of large intercellular junctions among tail cord cells, and rearrangement of these cells around a newly formed lumen. Mesenchymal characteristics of these cells are gradually lost, and they simultaneously acquire the morphology of epithelial cells. Some cells of the tail cord, located ventral to the tail gut, do not participate in the tail gut formation and form a separate mass of cells without any definitive morphogenetic fate. This surplus group of cells is first evident in 12-day embryos, and it increases in mass during the following 3 days. In 15-day embryos, after the tail gut has completely disappeared, the surplus cells represent all that remains of the tail cord. The mesenchymal-epithelial transformation of the tail cord cells into the cells of the tail gut, and the appearance of the surplus cells, could be considered as the main morphological arguments for the secondary formation of the tail gut.

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