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Building and environment 44건

  1. [해외논문]   IFC - Ed. Board  


    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. IFC , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   IFC - Ed. Board   SCIE


    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. IFC - IFC , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Machine learning approaches to predict thermal demands using skin temperatures: Steady-state conditions   SCIE

    Dai, Changzhi (Department of Architecture, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China ) , Zhang, Hui (Center for the Built Environment, UC Berkeley, USA ) , Arens, Edward (Center for the Built Environment, UC Berkeley, USA ) , Lian, Zhiwei (Department of Architecture, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 1 - 10 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Inefficient controlling strategies in heating and cooling systems have given rise to a large amount of energy waste and to widespread complaints about the thermal environment in buildings. An intelligent control method based on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is proposed in this paper. Skin temperatures are the only inputs to the model and have shown attractive prediction power in recognizing steady state thermal demands. Data were accumulated from two studies to consider potential use for either individuals or a group of occupants. Using a single skin temperature correctly predicts 80% of thermal demands. Using combined skin temperatures from different body segments can improve the model to over 90% accuracy. Results show that three skin locations contained enough information for classification and more would cause the curse of dimensionality. Models using different skin temperatures were compared. Optimal parameters for each model were provided using grid search technique. Considering the overfitting possibility and the cases without learning processes, SVM classifiers with a linear kernel are preferred over Gaussian kernel ones. Highlights An intelligent control method for heating and cooling systems is proposed. Using skin temperatures in SVM models predicts steady-state thermal demands well. Using a combination of skin temperatures helps to improve model performance. Skin temperatures have more power in predicting heating demands than cooling demands. SVM models with linear kernels are preferred to those with Gaussian kernels.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Model development of heat/mass transfer for internally cooled dehumidifier concerning liquid film shrinkage shape and contact angles   SCIE

    Dong, Chuanshuai (Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China ) , Lu, Lin (Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China ) , Qi, Ronghui (Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 11 - 22 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Moisture affects building materials, the thermal comfort of building occupants and the work performed by them. The plate liquid desiccant air-conditioning system (LDACS) is a promising dehumidification alternative to traditional air-conditioning system for lower energy consumption and less pollution. The shrinkage of the falling film on working plates critically influences the dehumidification performance by affecting the wetting area and film thickness. This paper developed a new model of plate dehumidifier concerning the shrinkage shape and the variable film thickness of falling film. The new model was validated by experiments and compared with existing models. The results indicated that the effect of contact angles on dehumidification performance can be accurately predicted. The moisture removal rates increased rapidly from 2.0 g/kg to 2.56 g/kg as the contact angles decreased from 85° to 5°, while the wetting area increased from 0.145 m 2 to 0.176 m 2 . The distribution of the humidity ratio of process air along flow direction with different contact angles was also simulated. Besides, the average film thickness decreased from 0.952 mm to 0.889 mm as the contact angles decreased from 85° to 5°. The annual electricity consumption of plate LDACS with different contact angles for a typical building in Hong Kong was estimated and analysed by using the newly developed model. The new model can achieve a better predictive accuracy by considering the exact shrinkage shape of falling film and the findings can provide a new insights improving the performance of plate dehumidifiers and other industrial applications, such as vertical condensers, evaporators and absorption towers. Highlights A new model of plate dehumidifier concerning film shape and thickness is developed. The effect of contact angle on film shape and dehumidification performance is studied. An experimental setup with two comparative channels is conducted. The energy consumption of desiccant cooling system in a typical building is simulated.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   Impacts of human and spatial factors on user satisfaction in office environments   SCIE

    Choi, Joon-Ho (Building Science, School of Architecture, University of Southern California, 850 West 37th St., Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA ) , Moon, Jehyun (HMC Architects, 3546 Concours St., Ontario, CA 91764, USA)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 23 - 35 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE), as an architectural design decision tool, utilizes data concerning multiple users' satisfaction in conjunction with indoor environmental components to develop a better quality of human life. However, one of the limitations of POE that is frequently pointed out is its excessive reliance on surveys and general solutions, without a full understanding of the occupants' physiological characteristics and pertinent environmental performance/conditions. This lack of awareness may lead to irrelevant modifications and the occupants' dissatisfaction with indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Therefore, this study suggested an integrated POE, that combined a quantifiable environmental dataset to indicate each individual occupant's satisfaction with each IEQ element. At 411 workstations in modern offices located in Southern California of the U.S., on-site IEQ measurements and user satisfaction surveys were conducted. Statistical analyses of the collected data were also conducted within specific categories of building types, spatial attributes, and human factors. These analyses revealed significant relationships that exist between human factors and IEQ satisfaction, as well as environmental conditions, including gender, age, workstation location, etc. These relationships could be ranked in accordance with the impact that sensitivities of individual IEQ elements using a decision tree algorithm, have on human physiological conditions. These findings suggested a hierarchical approach as an optimal design solution to maximize the occupants' well-being in their workplace environments. Therefore, these results reinforced the necessity for an integrated POE with consideration of human and environmental factors in order to provide enhanced/optimal IEQ design solutions for specifically-targeted population and spatial conditions. Highlights This study showed significant relationships existing between IEQ satisfaction and human factors. The relationships appear to be ranked in accordance with the sensitivity of IEQ to human factors. Females seem to prefer higher air velocities within a moderate range, as compared to males. A classification analysis supports the necessity for a POE to focus on a specifically-targeted IEQ solution. Human factors, and lighting and air quality were found to be key parameters in considering IEQ control and design.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   A tracking cooling fan using geofence and camera-based indoor localization   SCIE

    Liu, Shuo (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119077, Singapore ) , Yin, Le (School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore ) , Ho, Weng Khuen (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119077, Singapore ) , Ling, Keck Voon (School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore ) , Schiavon, Stefano (Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 36 - 44 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Compressor-based cooling systems have a large impact on energy consumption in modern buildings, particularly in the tropics. Elevated air movement by electric fans is a cost-effective cooling method for both energy saving and thermal comfort improvement. In this paper, a tracking cooling fan using geofence and camera-based indoor localization is proposed. Personal cooling service is provided based on the detection of the occupant in the area bounded by virtual geofences. The proposed camera-based indoor tracking system is able to accurately locate the positions of the occupant, determine the direction of air flow, and calculate the occupant-fan distance. The tracking fan is able to provide the needed air speed determined by PMV-SET thermal comfort model using a calibrated mapping algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been verified through experiments which show that the system is able to operate with low power while improving thermal comfort. The system can be used in an air-conditioned environment with higher temperature setpoint to save energy or in a naturally conditioned environment for thermal comfort enhancement. Highlights Human positions are tracked accurately by a camera-based indoor tracking system. Air flow is directed to the desired direction by using virtual geofences. Desired air speed is provided based on the PMV-SET thermal comfort model. Fan speed setting is adjusted by a calibrated mapping algorithm based on the estimation of occupant-fan distance. The proposed system can be used for thermal comfort improvement and energy conservation.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  7. [해외논문]   Multi-stage liquid-desiccant air-conditioner: Experimental performance and model development   SCIE

    McNevin, Christopher (Corresponding author.) , Harrison, Stephen J.
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 45 - 55 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract An experimental study evaluated the performance of a novel multi-stage liquid-desiccant air-conditioner featuring parallel inter-stage flows of cooling and heating water, and semi-series flows of desiccant. The system was tested at different inlet cooling water temperatures, ranging from 8 °C to 20 °C, using a solution of LiBr and water as the desiccant. Average total air cooling rates between 8.4 kW and 19.7 kW were observed, with higher cooling rates achieved with lower cooling water temperatures. The system was able to provide high sensible cooling rates of up to 8.8 kW. The cooling water temperature impacted the sensible cooling, but did not have a discernible impact on the latent cooling rate. The inlet air humidity was shown to have an impact on the latent cooling rate, with higher humidity leading to higher latent cooling rates. The energy consumption of the system was low, with an average thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.58 and electrical COP of 4.7. A variable effectiveness model was developed in TRNSYS and proven to be accurate at predicting the air cooling, but further experimental work is required to improve the thermal energy consumption model. The modular design philosophy of the model allows for easy changes to the design (e.g., number of stages, fluid flow paths, operating conditions, etc.) enabling future work to improve the regenerator modeling once further experimentation is completed. Highlights Experiments were conducted on a multi-stage liquid-desiccant air-conditioner. Various cooling water temperatures and ambient air conditions were studied. Cooling rates of up to 19.7 kW (latent) and 8.8 kW (sensible) were observed. Thermal and electric coefficients of performance of 0.58 and 4.7 were achieved. A variable effectiveness TRNSYS simulation was verified with the experimental data.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  8. [해외논문]   Associations between heavy traffic near residence and childhood health outcomes as modified by bedroom floor level and bedroom ventilation   SCIE

    Chang, Jing (School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China ) , Liu, Wei (School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China ) , Hu, Yu (Tongji Architectural Design (Group) Company Limited (TJAD), Shanghai, China ) , Zou, Zhijun (School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China ) , Shen, Li (R&B Technology (Shanghai) Company Limited, Shanghai, China ) , Wang, Xueying (School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China ) , Cai, Jiao (School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China ) , Sun, Chanjuan (School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China ) , Huang, Chen (School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 56 - 67 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract During 2011–2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study and collected 13,335 parent-reported questionnaires for 4-6 year-old children in Shanghai, China. In this study, we investigated associations of LC-HTRH (Living Close to High Traffic Roads or Highways within 200 m of the residence) with childhood health outcomes. In the multiple logistic regression analyses, LC-HTRH was significantly associated with lifetime-ever doctor-diagnosed asthma (adjusted OR, 95% CI: 1.40, 1.16–1.70). LC-HTRH and bedroom floor level had significant interaction effects on lifetime-ever asthma attack and eczema and past-year eczema. In the subanalyses, LC-HTRH was significantly associated with lifetime-ever asthma (1.52, 1.11–2.09) and asthma attack (1.69, 1.11–2.56) among children who lived on the 4th–6th floors. LC-HTRH was significantly associated with the increased odds of lifetime-ever asthma and past-year rhinitis in summer, autumn, and winter among children whose bedroom windows were opened often. Furthermore, more significant associations between LC-HTRH and the studied outcomes were found among children who both lived in low floor levels and came from families who often opened bedroom windows during night than others. Except for lifetime-ever asthma, no significant associations were found between LC-HTRH and all studied outcomes among children from families who did not often open bedroom windows during night in the different floor levels. This study indicates that LC-HTRH might be associated with part of childhood health outcomes. When ambient air is polluted, increasing bedroom ventilation might lead household air quality at low-medium levels worse, and thus increase odds of some childhood allergic and respiratory problems. Highlights We studied effects of bedroom floor level and ventilation on associations of heavy traffic with children's health. Heavy traffic was associated with increased odds of asthma and asthma attack in children lived on the 4th–6th floors. Heavy traffic near home had interaction effects with family ventilation habits on asthma and rhinitis. Increasing bedroom ventilation could increase odds of children's respiratory problems when ambient air is polluted.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   Analysis of time-resolved wind-driven rain on an array of low-rise cubic buildings using large eddy simulation and an Eulerian multiphase model   SCIE

    Kubilay, A. (Chair of Building Physics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETHZ, Zurich, Switzerland ) , Derome, D. (Laboratory for Multiscale Studies in Building Physics, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Dübendorf, Switzerland ) , Carmeliet, J. (Chair of Building Physics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETHZ, Zurich, Switzerland)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 68 - 81 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Time-resolved wind-driven rain (WDR) load is investigated on an array of low-rise cubic buildings using an Eulerian multiphase (EM) model together with large eddy simulation (LES). The influence of wind-flow unsteadiness on the unsteady behavior of raindrops and the WDR intensity is discussed in detail. The wind-flow field predicted with LES has been validated with wind-tunnel measurements. The mean WDR intensity values obtained using the EM model are found to be in agreement with in-situ WDR measurements. The time-resolved simulations show that the instantaneous specific catch ratio values of smaller droplets fluctuate a lot around their mean values due to higher influence of turbulence. Instantaneous specific catch ratios for the smallest raindrops are mainly dictated by local turbulent structures present in the shear layer or below the rooftop level. On the other hand, the motion of larger raindrops is mainly influenced by the larger-scale motions above the cubes. It is also shown that, running means of the specific catch ratio over a time window of 100–300 s of physical time stabilize to a constant value. Highlights CFD simulation of unsteady wind-driven rain is performed based on LES. Influence of wind-flow unsteadiness on the behavior of raindrops is investigated. Surface wetting by large raindrops is mainly dictated by the large-scale motions. Small raindrops are mainly influenced by smaller local turbulent structures. Mean catch ratio values stabilize around a constant value after about 300 s.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   An integrated local climatic evaluation system for green sustainable eco-city construction: A case study in Shenzhen, China   SCIE

    Liu, Lin (School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000, China ) , Lin, Yaoyu (Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China ) , Wang, Lina (State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China ) , Cao, Junliang (School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000, China ) , Wang, Dan (Shenzhen Tourism College of Jinan University, Shenzhen 518053, China ) , Xue, Puning (School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000, China ) , Liu, Jing (School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000, China)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 82 - 95 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Rapid urbanization has caused a series of environmental problems and increased demand for urban resources. The concept of green, sustainable eco-city constructions is becoming a world-wide common view. Considering the energy configuration and environmental suitability assessment, the outdoor local climate and thermal comfort conditions in a regional area should be effectively evaluated and analyzed to satisfy the resource-saving and environment-friendly demands. This paper proposes a new local climatic evaluation system (LCES) to predict and express local climatic patterns under different urban forms. The system has three modules: a pre-processing module, a dynamic calculation module, and a post-processing module. The pre-processing module uses GIS for parameter design and statistics. The calculation module adopts a regional climatic prediction model to calculate hourly climatic parameters from five dynamically linked sub-modules. The post-processing module expresses the climatic spatial visualizations through the temporal-spatial distributions of climatic parameters. We applied the LCES to conduct the climatic spatial analysis of a planning region in Shenzhen, China. Results from this case study show that local climate varies according to local urban form. During the research period, the average hourly urban heat island intensity (UHII) varied between −0.5 °C and 3 °Cand the average hourly new standard effective temperature (SET*) varied from 24 °C to 40 °C across the research area. We then used threshold values of UHII and SET* to identify problem areas for further analysis and re-planning. This user-friendly, integrated climatic evaluation system helps design climatic friendly urban environments. Highlights A newly integrated local climatic evaluation system (LCES) is developed. The proposed LCES consists of three modules and five databases. A case study in a typical ecological design region is conducted by using LCES. Local climatic distribution maps provide spatial visualization analysis. Problem areas are identified by defining threshold values.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지

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