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T : 목차정보

Occupational and environmental medicine 12건

  1. [해외논문]   Modifiers of non-specific symptoms in occupational and environmental syndromes.  

    Spurgeon, A ; Gompertz, D ; Harrington, J M
    Occupational and environmental medicine v.53 no.6 ,pp. 361 - 366 , 1996 , 1351-0711 ,

    초록

    Many occupational and environmental health hazards present as an increased reporting of non-specific symptoms such as headache, backache, eye and respiratory irritation, tiredness, memory problems, and poor concentration. The pattern and number of such symptoms is surprisingly constant from hazard to hazard suggesting that common psychological and social factors, not directly related to the exposure may be involved. A recent workshop (see acknowledgements) was held to review the pattern of symptoms in varying hazardous situations and the psychological mechanisms behind the genesis and maintenance of symptoms. The involvement of both direct physicochemical and psychological mechanisms in symptom generation and reporting in any situation was discussed and is reported here. A model that identifies the issues that need to be considered in any epidemiological study based on the incidence or prevalence of non-specific symptoms is proposed.

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  2. [해외논문]   Shiftwork and mortality from ischaemic heart disease.  

    McNamee, R ; Binks, K ; Jones, S ; Faulkner, D ; Slovak, A ; Cherry, N M
    Occupational and environmental medicine v.53 no.6 ,pp. 367 - 373 , 1996 , 1351-0711 ,

    초록

    To investigate the relation between shift work and death from ischaemic heart disease (IHD).

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  3. [해외논문]   Shift work, nitrous oxide exposure, and spontaneous abortion among Swedish midwives.  

    Axelsson, G ; Ahlborg, G ; Bodin, L
    Occupational and environmental medicine v.53 no.6 ,pp. 374 - 378 , 1996 , 1351-0711 ,

    초록

    OBJECTIVES: To study the relation between irregular work hours, nitrous oxide (N2O) exposure, and the risk of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: All 3985 female members of the Swedish Midwives Association in 1989, born in 1940 or later, received a questionnaire on exposure before and during all of their pregnancies. Questions on work conditions covered occupation, extent of employment, workplace, work schedules, use of anaesthetics, and work load. The association between exposure variables and spontaneous abortion was analysed by logistic regression models. RESULTS: Night work and three shift schedules among midwives showed increased odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals (95% CI)) 1.63 (0.95-2.81) and 1.49 (0.86-2.59), respectively. The ORs of late spontaneous abortions (after the 12th week of pregnancy) was increased for night work 3.33 (1.13-9.87). Use of N2O (> 50% of the deliveries) was not associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion OR 0.95 (0.62-1.47). Frequent or permanent shortage of staff was related to an increased risk of spontaneous abortions before the 13th week of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the hypothesis that night work and high work load increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

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  4. [해외논문]   Effect of subchronic in vivo exposure to nitrogen dioxide on lung tissue inflammation, airway microvascular leakage, and in vitro bronchial muscle responsiveness in rats.  

    Chitano, P ; Rado, V ; Di Stefano, A ; Papi, A ; Boniotti, A ; Zancuoghi, G ; Boschetto, P ; Romano, M ; Salmona, M ; Ciaccia, A ; Fabbri, L M ; Mapp, C E
    Occupational and environmental medicine v.53 no.6 ,pp. 379 - 386 , 1996 , 1351-0711 ,

    초록

    OBJECTIVES: In a previous study on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rats exposed in vivo for seven days to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), it has been shown that there is an influx of macrophages into the airways. The present study investigated the effect of seven day exposure to 10 ppm NO2, on: (a) lung tissue inflammation and morphology; (b) airway microvascular leakage; (c) in vitro contractile response of main bronchi. METHODS: Lung tissue was studied by light microscopy, after fixing the lungs by inflation with 4% formalin at a pressure of 20 cm H2O. Microvascular leakage was measured by extravasation of Evans blue dye in the larynx, trachea, main bronchi, and intrapulmonary airways. Smooth muscle responsiveness was evaluated by concentration-responses curves to acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-3) M), serotonin (10(-9)-10(-4) M), and voltage-response curves (12-28 V) to electrical field stimulation. RESULTS: Histology showed an increased total inflammation at the level of respiratory bronchioles and alveoli. No influx of inflammatory cells was found in the main bronchi. A loss of cilia in the epithelium of small airways and ectasia of alveolar capillaries was also found. By contrast, no alterations to microvascular permeability or modification of bronchial smooth muscle responsiveness was found. CONCLUSIONS: Subchronic exposure to 10 ppm NO2 causes airway inflammation and structural damage, but does not cause any persistent alteration to microvascular permeability or bronchial smooth muscle responsiveness in rats.

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  5. [해외논문]   Wool and grain dusts stimulate TNF secretion by alveolar macrophages in vitro.  

    Brown, D M ; Donaldson, K
    Occupational and environmental medicine v.53 no.6 ,pp. 387 - 393 , 1996 , 1351-0711 ,

    초록

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of two organic dusts, wool and grain, and their soluble leachates to stimulate secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by rat alveolar macrophages with special reference to the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

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  6. [해외논문]   Cancer mortality among shoe manufacturing workers: an analysis of two cohorts.  

    Fu, H ; Demers, P A ; Costantini, A S ; Winter, P ; Colin, D ; Kogevinas, M ; Boffetta, P
    Occupational and environmental medicine v.53 no.6 ,pp. 394 - 398 , 1996 , 1351-0711 ,

    초록

    To examine the cancer risk of shoe manufacturing workers and evaluate whether the risk was associated with exposure to leather dust and solvents.

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  7. [해외논문]   Lung cancer in asbestos cement workers in Denmark.  

    Raffn, E ; Villadsen, E ; Engholm, G ; Lynge, E
    Occupational and environmental medicine v.53 no.6 ,pp. 399 - 402 , 1996 , 1351-0711 ,

    초록

    To study the relative and absolute risks of main types of lung cancer in a cohort of asbestos cement workers from Denmark.

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  8. [해외논문]   Occupational exposure to poultry and prevalence of antibodies against Marek's disease virus and avian leukosis retroviruses.  

    Choudat, D ; Dambrine, G ; Delemotte, B ; Coudert, F
    Occupational and environmental medicine v.53 no.6 ,pp. 403 - 410 , 1996 , 1351-0711 ,

    초록

    To compare the prevalence of antibodies against Marek's disease herpes virus (MDV) and against avian leukosis viruses type C (ALV) in groups of workers exposed to poultry and in unexposed groups.

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  9. [해외논문]   Semen quality of men employed at a lead smelter.  

    Alexander, B H ; Checkoway, H ; van Netten, C ; Muller, C H ; Ewers, T G ; Kaufman, J D ; Mueller, B A ; Vaughan, T L ; Faustman, E M
    Occupational and environmental medicine v.53 no.6 ,pp. 411 - 416 , 1996 , 1351-0711 ,

    초록

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of recent and long term occupational lead exposure on indicators of male reproductive health. METHODS: In a cross sectional study of male employees of a lead smelter (n = 2469), blood samples were obtained from 152 workers including 119 who also provided semen samples. Semen analysis and serum concentrations of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinising hormone were used as indicators of reproductive health. Semen and hormone variables were examined in relation to measures of current and long term body lead burden estimated from current blood lead concentrations and historical blood lead monitoring data. RESULTS: For current blood lead concentration groups of 40 micrograms/dl, the geometric mean sperm concentrations were, respectively, 79.1, 56.5, 62.7, and 44.4 million cells/ml and geometric mean total sperm counts were 186, 153, 137, and 89 million cells (P for trend 0.04). Compared with workers with blood lead concentrations less than 15 micrograms/dl, workers with current blood lead concentrations of 40 micrograms/dl or more had an increased risk of below normal sperm concentration (odds ratio (OR) 8.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-57.9) and total sperm count (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.4-15.7), based on World Health Organisation standards. Independent of current lead exposure, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count were inversely related to measures of long term lead exposure. No association was found between lead exposure and measures of sperm motility, sperm morphology, or serum concentrations of reproductive hormones. CONCLUSIONS: Blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection criteria seem to adversely affect spermatogenesis.

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  10. [해외논문]   Biological indicators of exposure to total and respirable aluminium dust fractions in a primary aluminium smelter.  

    Röllin, H B ; Theodorou, P ; Cantrell, A C
    Occupational and environmental medicine v.53 no.6 ,pp. 417 - 421 , 1996 , 1351-0711 ,

    초록

    OBJECTIVES: The study attempts to define biological indicators of aluminium uptake and excretion in workers exposed to airborne aluminium compounds in a primary aluminium smelter. Also, this study defines the total and respirable aluminium dust fractions in two different potrooms, and correlates their concentrations with biological indicators in this group of workers. METHODS: Air was sampled at defined work sites. Non-destructive and conventional techniques were used to find total and respirable aluminium content of the dust. Blood and urine was collected from 84 volunteers employed at various work stations throughout the smelter and from two different cohorts of controls matched for sex, age, and socioeconomic status. Aluminium in serum samples and urine specimens was measured by flameless atomic absorption with a PE 4100 ZL spectrometer. RESULTS: The correlation of aluminium concentrations in serum and urine samples with the degree of exposure was assessed for three arbitrary exposure categories; low (0.036 mg Al/m3), medium (0.35 mg Al/m3) and high (1.47 mg Al/m3) as found in different areas of the smelter. At medium and high exposure, the ratio of respirable to total aluminium in the dust samples varied significantly. At high exposure, serum aluminium, although significantly raised, was still within the normal range of an unexposed population. The workers with low exposure excreted aluminium in urine at levels significantly higher than the controls, but still within the normal range of the population. However, potroom workers with medium and high exposure had significantly higher urinary aluminium than the normal range. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that only urinary aluminium constitutes a practical index of occupational exposure at or above 0.35 mg Al/m3, and that the respirable fraction of the dust may play a major role in the biological response to exposure to aluminium in a smelter environment.

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