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Journal of structural engineering 19건

  1. [해외논문]   Estimation of damping ratio of cable-stayed bridges for seismic design  

    Kawashima, Kazuhiko ; Unjoh, Shigeki ; Tunomoto, Meguru
    Journal of structural engineering v.119 no.4 ,pp. 1015 - 1031 , 1993 , 0733-9445 ,

    초록

    This paper proposes a method to evaluate the structural damping ratio of cable-stayed bridges, based on energy dissipation. As demonstrated by many field forced-excitation tests, the damping ratio of cable-stayed bridges varies from bridge to bridge. This is due to the fact that the energy mechanisms predominant in the bridges studied are different. Therefore an analytical approach capable of evaluating the damping ratio from structural components is desirable. By dividing a cabled-stayed bridge into several substructures in which the energy dissipation mechanism can be regarded as the same, it is proposed for each substructure to evaluate the energy dissipation function, which relates the amount of energy dissipation, with either the strain energy or the displacement at specific points in the substructures. By evaluating the overall energy dissipation and strain energy in the whole bridge, the damping ratio for the desired mode shape can be obtained. The proposed method is applied to a cable-stayed bridge model. Dependence of the damping ratio on oscillation amplitude and cable type of the bridge model is predicted with reasonable accuracy by the proposed method.(Author abstract)

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  2. [해외논문]   Lateral load distribution in asymmetrical tall building structures  

    Coull, Alex ; Wahab, A.F. Abdul
    Journal of structural engineering v.119 no.4 ,pp. 1032 - 1047 , 1993 , 0733-9445 ,

    초록

    An approximate method is presented for the analysis of the distribution of lateral forces among the components of a three-dimensional tall building structure that consists of assemblies of shear walls, coupled walls, and rigidly jointed frames, subjected to both bending and torsion. The load distribution on each element is assumed to be represented sufficiently accurately by a polynomial in the height coordinate, together with a concentrated interactive force at the top. The presence of the latter is essential for obtaining accurate results as simply as possible. A set of flexibility influence coefficients, relating the deflection at any level to any particular load component, is established for each element using continuum techniques. Use of the equilibrium and compatibility equations at any desired set of reference levels enables the load distribution on each element to be determined. Good results appear to be achieved for regular structures by using no more than about four reference levels, requiring the use of matrices of no more than order 4 in the analysis.(Author abstract)

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  3. [해외논문]   Finite element method for buckling analysis of plate structures  

    Chin, Chee-Kiong ; Al-Bermani, Faris G.A. ; Kitipornchai, Sritawat
    Journal of structural engineering v.119 no.4 ,pp. 1048 - 1100 , 1993 , 0733-9445 ,

    초록

    A finite element method using thin-plate elements is presented. The method is capable of predicting the buckling capacity of arbitrarily shaped thin-walled structural members under any general load and boundary conditions. The linear and geometric stiffness matrices for the thin-plate element are derived explicitly based on the principle of minimum total potential energy, thereby eliminating the need for numerical integration. The proposed plate element contains 30 degrees of freedom (dof): 14 dof for the in-plane (membrane) action and 16 dof for the out-of-plane (bending) action. Several numerical examples of thin-walled structural members involving local, distortional, and flexural-torsional buckling failure modes are presented to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and versatility of the method.(Author abstract)

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  4. [해외논문]   Reliability-based optimization of series systems of parallel systems  

    Enevoldsen, Ib ; Sorensen, John D.
    Journal of structural engineering v.119 no.4 ,pp. 1069 - 1084 , 1993 , 0733-9445 ,

    초록

    Reliability-based design of structural systems is considered. In particular, systems where the reliability model is a series system of parallel systems are treated. A sensitivity analysis for this class of problems is presented. Optimization problems with series systems of parallel systems are formulated. Direct and sequential optimization procedures to solve the optimization problems are developed. Four solution approaches are suggested and tested. The approaches include: (1) A direct approach including semianalytical sensitivities; (2) a direct approach including approximate sensitivities; (3) a sequential formulation based on optimality criteria; and (4) a sequential formulation including a new so-called bounds iteration method (BIM). Numerical tests indicate that the sequential technique including the BIM is particularly fast and stable. The BIM is not only effective in reliability-based optimization of series systems of parallel systems, but it is also efficient in reliability-based optimization of series systems in general.(Author abstract)

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  5. [해외논문]   Composite profiled beams  

    Oehlers, Deric John
    Journal of structural engineering v.119 no.4 ,pp. 1085 - 1100 , 1993 , 0733-9445 ,

    초록

    It is now common practice to use cold-formed steel decks consisting of profiled sheets both as permanent formwork for the support of the soffits of reinforced concrete slabs and also as part of the tension steel in the composite profiled slab that is formed after the concrete has hardened. The behavior of steel profiled sheets as permanent formwork to the sides of reinforced concrete beams is described in this paper. Experimental tests on large-scale beams show that the addition of profiled steel sheets to the sides of reinforced concrete beams can substantially increase both their flexural and shear strengths without loss of ductility and that this system is not prone to shear bond failure at the profiled-sheet/concrete-beam interface. Furthermore, theoretical studies suggest that the addition of side profiled sheets will substantially reduce long-term deflections due to creep and shrinkage of the concrete and allow increases in the span/depth ratio of about 20%.(Author abstract)

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  6. [해외논문]   Why direct tension test specimens break flexing to the side  

    Bazant, Zdenek P. ; Cedolin, Luigi
    Journal of structural engineering v.119 no.4 ,pp. 1101 - 1113 , 1993 , 0733-9445 ,

    초록

    Contrary to the traditional view, unnotched direct tension test specimens of quasi-brittle materials that exhibit post-peak strain softening do not deform symmetrically. After passing the peak load, the equilibrium path bifurcates and the secondary postbifurcation branch represents flexing to the side. The bifurcation is shown to be analogous to Shanley's bifurcation in elastoplastic columns. According to the thermodynamic criterion of stable path, the flexing to one side must occur even if the geometry is perfect and if the straightening effect of the moment of the axial force about the centroid of the deflected cross section is taken into account. The lateral flexing favors failure of the specimen at midlength. The phenomenon (which is similar to the recently discovered behavior of notched tensile fracture specimens) is first illustrated using a simple model in which the specimen consists of two rigid bars of unequal lengths, joined by a strain-softening link. It is shown that flexing to the side is retarded if the attachments to the loading machine exert a sufficient restraint against rotation. The analysis is then extended to a specimen consisting of two unloading elastic beams joined by a short strain-softening segment, and similar conclusions are reached. The maximum load in the unnotched direct-tension test gives the material strength limit, but the postpeak load-deflection response cannot yield the strain-softening material properties and energy-absorption capability except when sophisticated stability analysis is made and the size of the strain-softening zone is known a priori.(Author abstract)

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  7. [해외논문]   Approximate moment-curvature relationships for slender columns  

    Manzelli, Anibal A. ; Harik, Issam E.
    Journal of structural engineering v.119 no.4 ,pp. 1114 - 1132 , 1993 , 0733-9445 ,

    초록

    This paper presents the derivation of an approximate second-order method for the analysis and design of slender cantilever compression members. The method is based on the generation of equivalent linear representations for the nonlinear moment-curvature (M-Φ) relationships for the column cross section. The linear M-Φ equations are derived in such a way that they closely predict the nominal strength of the slender column for a prescribed axial load. The derivation is based on the guidelines of the German Code and Heft 220 - which, unlike the moment magnifier method, takes into account the influence of the axial load on the stiffness of the column. The results of the proposed method are in excellent agreement with experimental data and predictions from sophisticated computer programs.(Author abstract)

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  8. [해외논문]   Prismatic and nonprismatic slender columns and bridge piers  

    Manzelli, Anibal A. ; Harik, I.E.
    Journal of structural engineering v.119 no.4 ,pp. 1133 - 1149 , 1993 , 0733-9445 ,

    초록

    An approximate second-order hand-calculation technique is presented for the analysis and design of cantilever compression members. Prismatic members with constant or nonconstant reinforcement, and nonprismatic members can be treated by this method. A linear approximation of the nonlinear moment-curvature relationship is derived. The approximation accounts for the influence of the axial load on the stiffness of the column. Analysis and design equations are generated, and their formulation takes into account the effects of creep, foundation rotation, and out-of-plumbness. Design tables for different cross-section and material properties are presented. Analysis and design examples are presented for prismatic and nonprismatic columns.(Author abstract)

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  9. [해외논문]   Stiffness matrix for exact solution of sandwich beam and frame systems  

    Ha, Kinh H.
    Journal of structural engineering v.119 no.4 ,pp. 1150 - 1167 , 1993 , 0733-9445 ,

    초록

    This paper formulates the stiffness matrix and a procedure for the analysis of a general class of sandwich beam and frame structures subjected to arbitrary loading and boundary conditions. The computed solutions for both deflections and stresses are exact in the sense that they satisfy the governing differential equation, all boundary conditions, and interelement compatibility. Explicit expressions are given for the formulation of the stiffness matrix, and of the fixed-end forces for common loading conditions. The theory is applicable to sandwich construction of both thick and thin facings, with or without edge reinforcement. Preliminary study of the behavior of sandwich beams using the developed theory shows that the Saint Venant principle may not apply to sandwich beams regarding the effects of applied end moments. Restraint against shear deformations will generally reduce deflections and shear stresses in the core, but tend to increase stresses in the facings. Quantitative assessment of these and other factors can be easily carried out with the present theory.(Author abstract)

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  10. [해외논문]   Failure mechanism of new bond-type anchor bolt subject to tension  

    Goto, Yoshiaki ; Obata, Makoto ; Maeno, Hirofumi ; Kobayashi, Yoichi
    Journal of structural engineering v.119 no.4 ,pp. 1168 - 1187 , 1993 , 0733-9445 ,

    초록

    The objective of this study is to investigate the failure mechanism of a new bond-type anchor bolt under tensile force so that a design method may be established. A conventional headed anchor bolt embedded in a concrete footing normally fails by pulling out a stress cone; however, the bond-type anchor bolt exhibits a complex failure mode, here referred to as a mixed bond-cone failure. To date, the theoretical aspects of this failure mechanism have not been established. With the needs of design application in mind, an analytical model to predict the ultimate strength of the bond-type anchor bolt is presented. Experimental data confirm that this model can be used with acceptable accuracy to assess the ultimate strength and the failure mode of the bond-type anchorage system.(Author abstract)

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