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Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology 36건

  1. [해외논문]   Editorial Board  


    Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology v.505 ,pp. ii - ii , 2018 , 0031-0182 ,

    초록

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  2. [해외논문]   Late Pleistocene humans in Sri Lanka used plant resources: A phytolith record from Fahien rock shelter  

    Premathilake, Rathnasiri (Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka ) , Hunt, Chris O. (School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, UK)
    Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology v.505 ,pp. 1 - 17 , 2018 , 0031-0182 ,

    초록

    Abstract Little is known of the human use of rainforest plant resources of prehistoric Sri Lanka due to the lack of preservation of organic material and the effects of various destructive taphonomic processes. Phytoliths recovered from a AMS radiocarbon and OSL dated sequence at Fahien Rock Shelter indicate interactions of anatomically modern humans with the lowland rainforests of south-western Sri Lanka from 44,952–47,854 cal. BP to 11,991–12,402 cal. BP. During this period, the Rock Shelter occupants extracted their livelihood from a number of wild plants including bananas, rice, breadfruits, durians, canarium and species of palm and bamboo. These taxa are associated with present-day disturbed lowland rainforests. Gathering and processing of plant resources by existing modern rainforest foragers cannot directly be compared with the subsistence activities of the Late Pleistocene Rock Shelter occupants. Highlights Fahien Rock Shelter sediments contained well-preserved phytoliths. Phytolith evidence indicates the late Pleistocene human-rainforest history from 47,854 cal BP. Rock Shelter occupants exploited wild banana, rice, breadfruit, durians, Canarium sp. and number of species of palm.

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  3. [해외논문]   Maastrichtian oil shale deposition on the southern Tethys margin, Egypt: Insights into greenhouse climate and paleoceanography  

    Fathy, Douaa (Department for Geodynamics and Sedimentology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria ) , Wagreich, Michael (Department for Geodynamics and Sedimentology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria ) , Gier, Susanne (Department for Geodynamics and Sedimentology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria ) , Mohamed, Ramadan S.A. (Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Minia University, 61519 El-Minia, Egypt ) , Zaki, Rafat (Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Minia University, 61519 El-Minia, Egypt ) , El Nady, Mohamed M. (Exploration Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, 11727 Cairo, Egypt)
    Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology v.505 ,pp. 18 - 32 , 2018 , 0031-0182 ,

    초록

    Abstract A comprehensive set of organic and inorganic geochemical proxies, clay mineralogy, and molecular fossils are presented from two biostratigraphically well-dated oil shale horizons of Egypt, within the Upper Cretaceous Duwi and Dakhla formations. The studied oil shales were deposited within intracratonic sedimentary basins in a broad northern African epeiric sea. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy indicates that the oil shales range from early to late Maastrichtian in age, covering nannofossil zones UC18, UC19, and UC20. The oil shales contain smectite and kaolinite as the main clay minerals that formed by weathering of precursor basement rocks. The relative abundances of clay minerals and several geochemical proxies (e.g. C-value, CIA, Ga/Rb, Rb/Sr and Sr/Cu), along with the occurrence of warm-water nannofossil taxa, demonstrate that the Maastrichtian oil shales accumulated under a warm, arid to humid greenhouse climate during a general Maastrichtian cooling trend. This episode of oil shale deposition in Egypt coincided with the first potential imprint of the global warming, that has been recorded during early-to-late Maastrichtian times (~70.6–67.7 Ma). Elevated eolian terrigenous input was recorded within the Duwi Formation oil shales, shown by high Ti/Al, Si/Al, Zr/Al and low La/Lu ratios. The Duwi Formation environment was characterized by enhanced salinity and a stratified water column, compared to that of the Dakhla Formation, shown by elevated values of the gammacerane index, tetracyclic terpane, β‑carotene and Sr/Ba ratio. The CaCO 3 content and carbonate/siliciclastic ratio indicate that the Dakhla Formation oil shales were deposited during a relative sea-level rise in a deeper marine setting than the Duwi Formation oil shales. The data further imply a wind-driven upwelling scenario of nutrient input s that simulated primary production and increased organic matter fluxes. Thus, paleoclimate and paleoceanography had a considerable impact on organic matter enrichment. Highlights Maastrichtian oil shales of Egypt were deposited under a warm greenhouse climate. Salinity, sea level, nutrient, and detrital inputs were variable during deposition. The TOC enrichment was controlled by the enhanced productivity and anoxia. Paleoclimatic changes had a great impact on the organic matter accumulation.

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  4. [해외논문]   Paleoecology of seabirds at Nandao, Xisha Islands, South China Sea: Sub-fossil evidence for Ashmole's Halo during the Little Ice Age  

    Wu, Libin (Institute of Polar Environment & Anhui Key Laboratory of Polar Environment and Global Change, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, PR China ) , Liu, Xiaodong (Institute of Polar Environment & Anhui Key Laboratory of Polar Environment and Global Change, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, PR China ) , Xu, Liqiang (School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, PR China ) , Fu, Pingqing (Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China ) , Wang, Xueying (Institute of Polar Environment & Anhui Key Laboratory of Polar Environment and Global Change, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, PR China ) , Jin, Jing (Institute of Polar Environment & Anhui Key Laboratory of Polar Environment and Global Change, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026) , Rao, Zixuan , Zhou, Yongli , Li, Yeling
    Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology v.505 ,pp. 33 - 41 , 2018 , 0031-0182 ,

    초록

    Abstract Tropical seabirds play a key role in coral island ecosystems, but there are still many uncertainties regarding their paleoecology. Seabird paleoecology was investigated on Nandao Island, Xisha Islands, South China Sea, from sub-fossil remains spanning the past 800 years. Ornithogenic sediments were collected beneath seabird-inhabited shrubs where a large number of seabird/fish sub-fossils were recovered. We used reflectance spectroscopy to show that seabird population size was overall higher during the Little Ice Age (LIA) compared to periods before and after this event. Nonetheless, the number of seabirds also fluctuated during the LIA. Seabird populations on Nandao reached their highest points at 1480–1550 and 1650–1800 CE, respectively, but the population remained low from 1550 to 1650 CE. A large migration of seabirds from Nandao Island to the adjacent Beidao Island, where the population size surged at that time, is hypothesized to explain the corresponding decrease in the seabirds at Nandao. Stable isotope (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) analyses also suggest a change in foraging behavior by seabirds at Nandao during the period 1550–1650 CE. Seabirds at low population size foraged near the island and preyed upon smaller flying fish as inferred from low δ 15 N and high δ 13 C values in fish scales, but fed upon larger flying fish farther from the island during times of high population. This shift in foraging behavior is in accordance with predictions for Ashmole's Halo in that islands with high densities of birds will cause a depletion of resources near the colonies and force more distant foraging away from the colony. Highlights Seabird population size during the past 800 yrs. was reconstructed. δ 13 C and δ 15 N could reveal the foraging behaviors of seabirds. Ashmole's halo existed around the island when there were more seabirds.

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  5. [해외논문]   Holocene precipitation changes in the Maya forest, YucatAn peninsula, Mexico  

    Vela-Pelaez, A.A. (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Chetumal, Avenida Centenario Kilómetro 5.5, Apartado Postal 424, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico ) , Torrescano-Valle, N. (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Chetumal, Avenida Centenario Kilómetro 5.5, Apartado Postal 424, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico ) , Islebe, G.A. (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Chetumal, Avenida Centenario Kilómetro 5.5, Apartado Postal 424, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico ) , Mas, J.F. (Centro de Investigaciones en Geografía Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro No. 8701, Colonia Ex-Hacienda de San José) , Weissenberger, H. (de la Huerta. C.P., 58190 Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico. )
    Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology v.505 ,pp. 42 - 52 , 2018 , 0031-0182 ,

    초록

    Abstract Holocene fossil pollen samples ( n = 38) from Lake Silvituc in Mexico were analyzed with the analog technique using modern pollen samples ( n = 98) of the YucatAn Peninsula, Mexico. Calculated dissimilarity indices allow us to reconstruct the vegetation and to develop a precipitation record for the last 7900 years. The Middle Holocene shows a gradual increase of precipitation and a marked drop in reconstructed precipitation around 4200 BCE. During the Late Holocene two phases were identified: Phase I (2500 BCE – 1 CE) shows the greatest increase in precipitation with four peaks around 1200 BCE, 650 BCE, 200 BCE and 1 CE. Also a period of increased precipitation resulted for the period between 200 and 500 BCE. Periods of reduced precipitation were detected at 900–1100 BCE, 500–600 BCE and 100–190 BCE. Phase II (1–2000 CE) encompasses several strong dry events during the following periods: 150–300 CE, 750–900 CE, 1050–1180 CE, and 1530–1580 CE. A strong reduction of 32% in precipitation in the late Preclassic Period (100–300 CE) was detected. Non-analogs of Phase II are associated with periods of reduced precipitation and fall into time periods of extended droughts related to the Maya Late Classic and the Little Ice Age. A limiting factor on the use of analogs for tropical forests is that a combination of different analogs for the same fossil pollen signal exists. Interpretation under these circumstances requires good knowledge of the ecology of the taxa and a priori characterization of the modern samples. Highlights Precipitation was reconstructed for the last 7900 years. The Middle Holocene shows gradual increase of precipitation and a marked drop in reconstructed precipitation around 4200 BCE. No analogs of the last 2000 years are associated with reduced precipitation.

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  6. [해외논문]   Stable isotope signatures in white-tailed deer as a seasonal paleoenvironmental proxy: A case study from Georgia, United States  

    Rivera-Araya, Maria (Department of Geography, University of Georgia, 210 Field Street, Athens, GA 30602, United States ) , Pilaar Birch, Suzanne (Department of Geography, University of Georgia, 210 Field Street, Athens, GA 30602, United States)
    Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology v.505 ,pp. 53 - 62 , 2018 , 0031-0182 ,

    초록

    Abstract Oxygen and carbon isotopes from herbivore teeth have previously been used as paleoenvironmental proxies. However, their use in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) remains rare. Here, we present the results of analysis of sequential sub-samples from second and third molars of wild and non-wild deer from Georgia, United States in order to assess their application in humid subtropical climates. In wild deer, enamel carbonate δ 18 O corresponds broadly to the recorded precipitation δ 18 O over the 10-month period of tooth formation, capturing the rainfall seasonality across the physiogeographic regions of the state. Non-wild deer show significantly lower values compared to both measured and modeled δ 18 O precipitation. While δ 13 C in tooth enamel carbonate appears to reflect diet, it does not reflect seasonality in either population. The δ 13 C and δ 15 N from bone collagen values suggest that diet and source of drinking water influence the potential of white tailed deer tooth enamel carbonate to record the δ 18 O seasonality in the study area; therefore, special attention on the provenance of deer are necessary for obtaining accurate paleoclimate reconstruction. Highlights Wild white-tailed deer enamel reflects seasonal δ 18 O precipitation values in Georgia. Non-wild deer do not represent the seasonal rainfall variation. Diet and water source affect significantly the isotopic composition of deer enamel.

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  7. [해외논문]   Controls of climate, catchment erosion and biological production on long-term community and functional changes of chironomids in High Arctic lakes (Svalbard)  

    Luoto, Tomi P. (Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, FI-15140 Lahti, Finland ) , Ojala, Antti E.K. (Geological Survey of Finland, Betonimiehenkuja 4, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland)
    Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology v.505 ,pp. 63 - 72 , 2018 , 0031-0182 ,

    초록

    Abstract Arctic freshwater basins are diversity hotspots and sentinels of climate change, but their long-term variability and the environmental variables controlling them are not well defined. We examined four available lake sediment sequences from High Arctic Svalbard for their subfossil Chironomidae communities, biodiversity and functional traits and assessed the influence of climatic and limnological variability on the long-term ecological dynamics. Our results indicated that collector-filterers had an important role in the oligotrophic sites, whereas collector-gatherers dominated the nutrient-enriched sites with significant bird guano inputs. In the oligotrophic sites, benthic production, taxon richness and taxonomic and functional diversity were highest during the early Holocene, when temperatures showed a rapid increase. An increase in subfossil abundance and diversity metrics was also found in recent samples of the oligotrophic sites, but not in the bird-impacted sites, where the trends were decreasing. When partitioning out the environmental forcing on chironomid communities, the influence of climate was significant in all the sites, whereas in-lake production (organic matter) was significant in two of the sites and catchment erosion (magnetic susceptibility) had only minor influence. The findings suggest that major changes in Arctic chironomid assemblages were driven by climate warming with increasing diversity in oligotrophic sites, but deteriorating ecological functions in environmentally stressed sites. We found that although taxonomic and functional diversity were always coupled, taxonomical and functional turnovers were coupled only in the oligotrophic sites suggesting that the ecological functions operated by chironomids in these low-productivity sites may not be as resilient to future environmental change. Highlights High Arctic benthic communities were examined for biodiversity and functional traits. The findings suggest major changes in ecological structures driven by climate warming. Oligotrophic sites had high diversity, whereas stressed sites had decreased functions. Taxonomical and functional turnovers were coupled only in the oligotrophic sites. Ecosystem functioning of low-productive sites may not be resilient to future changes.

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  8. [해외논문]   The dominance of an extant gregarious taxon in an attritional accumulation: Taphonomy and palaeoecological implications  

    Mayer, Elver Luiz (Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brazil ) , Kerber, Leonardo (CAPPA-Centro de Apoio à) , Ribeiro, Ana Maria (Pesquisa Paleontológica da Quarta Colônia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rua Maximiliano Vizzotto 598, São João do Polêsine, RS 97230-000, Brazil ) , Hubbe, Alex (Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brazil )
    Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology v.505 ,pp. 73 - 85 , 2018 , 0031-0182 ,

    초록

    Abstract A recurrent aspect of the fossil record is the observation of a disproportionate number of specimens or individuals of a single taxon in some deposits, which is stated as dominance. Commonly, the dominance is explained as the result of catastrophic or short-term mass death events or are proxies for palaeoecological inferences regarding gregariousness. However, taphonomic, stratigraphic and chronologic analyses of fossiliferous deposits have shown that this is not always true. To contribute to the study of dominance in fossil assemblages, we describe a probable Quaternary skeletal accumulation dominated by the extant gregarious rock-dwelling rodent Kerodon rupestris recovered from Sumidouro do SansAo, a 65 m deep pitfall cave in northeast Brazil, and discuss the palaeoecological implications of our findings. We provide taxonomic identification, taphonomic analyses, and chronological assessment. Besides K. rupestris (minimum number of individuals, MNI = 35), we recorded three taxonomic groups, that are the ground sloth Catonyx cuvieri (MNI = 1), the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla (MNI = 1), and the cougar Puma concolor (MNI = 1). The taphonomic analysis of the K. rupestris remains supports the idea that entrapment of individuals was the main process of bone accumulation and that the death of cave inhabitants followed by short transport to the main hall possibly occurred. Kerodon rupestris remains persisted on the surface of the cave deposit for different time spans and were exposed to fragmentation, weathering, invertebrate boring and encrustation inside the cave environment. Direct dating suggests differences in the ages obtained and intermittent deposition of the individuals inside the cave. It highlights the influence of taphonomic controls on gregarious taxa, such as K. rupestris , towards dominating attritional time-averaged assemblages. Furthermore, it demonstrates that such assemblages do not necessarily support inferences about single event mortality and gregariousness of the dominant taxon. Highlights An assemblage dominated by a gregarious rocky-dwelling rodent is described. Individuals were accumulated by intermittent entrapment and death inside the cave. The skeletal remains persisted unburied for different time spans. An attritional time-averaged assemblage was formed by the gregarious taxon. Gregariousness of extinct taxa and single death events need to be carefully evaluated. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  9. [해외논문]   Astronomical calibration of the Middle Ordovician of the Yangtze Block, South China  

    Zhong, Yangyang (State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China ) , Wu, Huaichun (State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China ) , Zhang, Yuandong (CAS Key Laboratory of Economic Stratigraphy and Palaeogeography, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China ) , Zhang, Shihong (State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China ) , Yang, Tianshui (State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China ) , Li, Haiyan (State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China ) , Cao, Liwan (State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China)
    Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology v.505 ,pp. 86 - 99 , 2018 , 0031-0182 ,

    초록

    Abstract Establishing a high-precision numerical geological time scale for the Paleozoic Era remains a considerable challenge. In this study, we conducted detailed cyclostratigraphic analysis on the Middle Ordovician of the Huangnitang section and the core Changjin 3 (CJ-3), Zhejiang Province, South China. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) series were obtained from a total of 3909 discrete samples and are used as a paleoclimate proxy indicative of variations in detrital input of magnetic minerals. Power spectral analyses show that both the section and core have recorded an excellent hierarchy of Milankovitch cycles of 405 kyr, 101–135 kyr, 31–34 kyr, and 15.8–21.3 kyr. An integrated floating astronomical time scale (ATS) for the section and core was established according to the extracted stable 405-kyr eccentricity cycles. This new floating ATS suggests that the durations of the Darriwilian and Dapingian stages were 8.38 ± 0.4 Myr and 1.97 ± 0.7 Myr, and the durations of complete graptolite zones of the Middle Ordovician were precisely estimated. The ratios of band (obliquity or short eccentricity) power to total power reveal periodicities of ~1.2 Myr for the s 4 – s 3 term and ~1.9 Myr for the g 4 – g 3 term, and ~1.2-Myr obliquity cycles may have controlled global third-order eustatic sequences during the late Darriwilian.

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  10. [해외논문]   Oligocene fossil assemblages from Lake Nanning (Yongning Formation; Nanning Basin, Guangxi Province, SE China): Biodiversity and evolutionary implications  

    Ying, Tian (Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China Sea, Ministry of Agriculture, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, Liaoning, China ) , Shaw, David (Biostratigraphic Associates (UK) Ltd., 17 Woodland Avenue, Norton Green, Stoke on Trent ST6 8NE, UK ) , Schneider, Simon (CASP, West Building, Madingley Rise, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0UD, UK)
    Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology v.505 ,pp. 100 - 119 , 2018 , 0031-0182 ,

    초록

    Abstract Sediments of the long-lived Lake Nanning in southern China (Guangxi Province) have yielded rich and diversified fossil biota of Oligocene age. The history of research on these fossils is documented herein, and revised lists of the flora and fauna recorded from Lake Nanning are provided. Based on newly collected data, the mollusc fauna and palynology of the lake sediments are assessed. Gastropods (Viviparidae, Stenothyridae), bivalves (Unionidae), ostracods and fish have successfully radiated in Lake Nanning, and developed a variety of endemic species. Shell thickening, spines, carinae, nodes and restricted apertures in bivalves and gastropods are interpreted as armour to prevent predation by giant shell crushing carp. Four different, successive macro-mollusc associations are documented, and can likely be used for relative dating of the lake sediments. Palynomorph assemblages from different lake stages are dominated by cool temperate conifer pollen and freshwater algae. The new findings suggest that the sediments of the Yongning Formation were deposited during or after Eocene–Oligocene cooling and are Oligocene in age. This also supports the biostratigraphy based on rare mammal finds. The fossils of Lake Nanning are outstandingly well preserved and provide a great opportunity to study endemic lake radiations. Besides, the lake sediments are one of the most important Oligocene climate archives of the region. Highlights A list of the Oligocene fossil flora and fauna of Lake Nanning is provided. Four aquatic mollusc associations are defined, and their value for stratigraphy is outlined. Palynomorph assemblages provide evidence of Oligocene cooling. The highly endemic aquatic fauna has radiated in a long-lived lake. Radiation was partly driven by an arms race of molluscs and carp.

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