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H : 소장처정보

T : 목차정보

Applied energy 122건

  1. [해외논문]   Editorial Board   SCI SCIE


    Applied energy v.212 ,pp. ii - ii , 2018 , 0306-2619 ,

    초록

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Injection strategies for reducing smoke and improving the performance of a butanol-diesel common rail dual fuel engine   SCI SCIE

    Yadav, Jaykumar (Corresponding author at: MS Scholar, Internal Combustion Engine Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, Tamil Nadu, India.) , Ramesh, A.
    Applied energy v.212 ,pp. 1 - 12 , 2018 , 0306-2619 ,

    초록

    Abstract In dual fuel engines auto-ignition of the inducted butanol creates a high temperature environment prior to the injection of diesel. This results in enhanced smoke emissions. This work was aimed at controlling the smoke level in a butanol diesel common rail turbocharged dual fuel engine through multiple fuel injections. Experiments were performed on a three cylinder turbocharged common rail diesel engine at a speed of 1800 rpm and BMEPs corresponding to 75% and 100% of full load (BMEP of 11.8 bar). Port fuel injectors along with dedicated circuitry were employed to control the quantity and timing of butanol introduction into the intake air. An open engine controller was used to vary the rail pressure, injection timing and number of pulses of the diesel that was directly injected into the combustion chamber. The injection timing of diesel was always set for best efficiency. First the effect of Main plus Post Injection (MPI) of diesel at a fixed butanol to diesel energy share (BDES) of 30% was evaluated at different post injection quantities and main to post offsets. Subsequently the influence of BDES was studied at a fixed post injection quantity and offset from the main injection. Finally Pilot plus Main Injection (PMI) of diesel, Main plus Post Injection (MPI) of diesel and Main plus Two Post Injections (MPTPI) of diesel were compared in the dual fuel mode. MPI resulted in improved brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and drastically reduced the smoke level because of enhanced mixing by the momentum of the post injected fuel. NO and CO 2 were also reduced. Using high BDES values along with optimised post injection quantities and main to post offsets reduced the smoke level. PMI of diesel resulted in lower BTE and higher smoke, while the only advantage was reduced NO levels. MPI was better than MPTPI with respect to all the parameters. On the whole, in a dual fuel engine that uses butanol and diesel the main plus post strategy is effective in improving energy efficiency, reducing smoke and also in increasing the amount of butanol that can be utilized. Highlights Detailed study on multiple injection of diesel in a butanol-diesel dual fuel engine. Main plus post injection enhances energy efficiency of butanol dual fuel engines. Simultaneous reduction of smoke, NO and fuel consumption were achieved. Post injection quantity of 1.5 mg and offset of 9.7° found to be optimal. Auto-ignition of butanol before diesel injection limits butanol energy share.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Comprehensive study of key operating parameters on combustion characteristics of butanol-gasoline blends in a high speed SI engine   SCI SCIE

    Liu, Kaimin (State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China ) , Li, Yangtao (Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada ) , Yang, Jing (State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China ) , Deng, Banglin (College of Mechatronics and Control Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China ) , Feng, Renhua (Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacture Technology for Automobile Parts, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054, China ) , Huang, Yanjun (Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada)
    Applied energy v.212 ,pp. 13 - 32 , 2018 , 0306-2619 ,

    초록

    Abstract An experimental research were performed in a spark ignition (SI), high speed engine with n -butanol blended ratio of 0%, 30% and 35% by volume to gasoline, and numerical calculation was conducted under different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and compression ratio combined with knock index (KI) by using GT-Power simulation software. This study aims to find out the common regularities about the effects of key variables such as butanol blend ratio, ignition timing, engine load, EGR rate and compression ratio combined with KI on combustion performance of butanol-gasoline blends in a high speed engine. Results show that, the butanol can achieve better knock resistance in SI engines, which allows earlier ignition timing. After the ignition timing optimized, the peak cylinder pressure (PCP) and the peaks of the rate of heat release (ROHR) rise obviously as the butanol blend ratio increases. Correspondingly, both the locations for PCP and the peaks of ROHR are advanced, which is beneficial to improve thermal power conversion efficiency. The PCP and the rate of pressure rise are obviously influenced by 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) and 10–90% MFB, but the gross indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) and net ITE are not consistent with the changing trend of 50% MFB and 10–90% MFB. The influence of engine load on combustion heat release is greater than that of engine speed. When the engine load increases, the gross ITE increases slightly, but the net ITE shows a noticeable upward trend. The burning rate of butanol-gasoline blends is more sensitive to the change of EGR rate than that of PG, and it is mainly affected by the oxygen concentration and in-cylinder temperature. The increase of compression ratio can boost the in-cylinder maximum combustion temperature, which benefits the improvement of in-cylinder temperature gradient and net ITE, but the rate of net ITE rise gradually decreases with the compression ratio increasing. Highlights Common regularities about effects of key variables on combustion were evaluated. Butanol can achieve better knock resistance for allowing earlier ignition timing. The influence of engine load on combustion is greater than that of engine speed. With engine load rising, the net indicated efficiency shows a upward trend. Burning rate of blended fuel is more sensitive to EGR rate than that of gasoline.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Assessing compressibility effects on the performance of large horizontal-axis wind turbines   SCI SCIE

    Yan, Chi (Corresponding author.) , Archer, Cristina L.
    Applied energy v.212 ,pp. 33 - 45 , 2018 , 0306-2619 ,

    초록

    Abstract The tips of large horizontal-axis wind turbines can easily reach high speeds, thus raising the concern that compressibility effects may influence turbine wakes and ultimately power production. All past studies have assumed that these effects are negligible. Compressibility effects are assessed here in terms of blade aerodynamic properties and variable density separately. Using the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method, we find that under normal operating conditions (i.e., wind speed −1 and tip speed ratio TSR Highlights Assessments of compressibility effects around large wind turbines are conducted. Compressibility effects in flow around large wind turbines are not negligible. Compressibility effects start near the blade tips and impact the wake. Compressibility effects increase as upstream wind speed and tip speed ratio increase. Power generation of wind turbines is lower when compressibility is considered.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   A study of the relationships between coal structures and combustion characteristics: The insights from micro-Raman spectroscopy based on 32 kinds of Chinese coals   SCI SCIE

    Xu, Jun (State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei, China ) , Tang, Hao (State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei, China ) , Su, Sheng (State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei, China ) , Liu, Jiawei (State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei, China ) , Xu, Kai (State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei, China ) , Qian, Kun (State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei, China ) , Wang, Yi (State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei, China ) , Zhou, Yingbiao (State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei, China ) , Hu, Song (State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of) , Zhang, Anchao , Xiang, Jun
    Applied energy v.212 ,pp. 46 - 56 , 2018 , 0306-2619 ,

    초록

    Abstract Structures and combustion characteristics of 32 kinds of Chinese coals were studied by Micro-Raman spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analyzer. Changes in coal structures with coalification were investigated by detailed curve-fitting the Raman spectrum with ten Gaussian bands. The relationships between the Raman spectral parameters and coal combustion characteristics were set up and evaluated. The results indicate that the loss of aromatic substituents or aliphatic structures can be responsible for the decrease of V daf for low rank coals (volatiles content in dry ash-free basis (V daf ) > 25%), while the rapid growth of aromatic rings along with the increase of cross-linking density of coals mainly occurs under coalification for relative high rank coal (V daf > 25%). Besides, C O structures in coal increase monotonously with the increase of V daf . The condensation of aromatic rings, loss of C O structures and reduction of “impurity” structures among large aromatic rings all can increase the coal combustion characteristic temperatures. Reasonable correlations between the coal combustion characteristic temperatures: T i , T m , T b and Raman spectral parameters: A (GR+VL+VR) /A D , A GL /A Total , A S /A D , A D /A Total have been found respectively, and the relationships are all better than that between T i , T m , T b and V daf . Particularly, the Raman spectral parameter A D /A Total is a combination of above key parameters and related to the coal ignition temperature best with the R-square higher than 0.9. A D /A Total can act as a good indicator for coal combustion characteristics. This study directly demonstrates that Raman spectroscopy can play a probe not only for coal ranks/structures but also coal combustion characteristics and it can provide a new approach to rapidly predict the coal properties. Highlights 32 kinds of Chinese coals are studied by Raman spectroscopy and TGA. Relations between coal combustion characteristics and Raman parameters are set up. Raman parameters can act as probes for coal rank and combustion characteristics. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   Large-scale liquid hydrogen production methods and approaches: A review   SCI SCIE

    Aasadnia, Majid (Corresponding author at: Renewable Energies Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.) , Mehrpooya, Mehdi
    Applied energy v.212 ,pp. 57 - 83 , 2018 , 0306-2619 ,

    초록

    Abstract Large-scale hydrogen liquefaction (LHL) methods and different approaches of the configuration of hydrogen liquefaction cycles are chronicled. History landmarks of permanent gases liquefaction are quick reviewed and the basic hydrogen liquefaction cycles, the existing in-service LHL plants around the world, and LHL conceptual proposed plants, including the state of the art plants, are recorded and categorized based on the systems’ main parameters. In addition, a novel classification of hydrogen liquefaction systems in terms of heat exchange and expansion process method is introduced. As well as, the authors infer that renewable energy technologies section should be added to the old sectioning of the hydrogen liquefaction plants. In addition, hybrid conceptual hydrogen liquefaction plants, combining with renewable power cycles are reviewed and the increasing contribution of this new approach is demonstrated. Finally, the operational costs of the plants considering the systems’ efficiency are examined, and a trend in specific energy consumption (SEC) and exergy efficiency of hydrogen liquefiers is discussed. Accordingly, considering the existing technologies, SEC reduction of hydrogen liquefaction will not be abrupt in near future and it will remain within the range of 5–8 kWh / kg LH 2 . Moreover, exploiting of isentropic expansion processes instead of isenthalpic one, cascading of refrigerating cycles, using of new mixed refrigerants as working fluid of refrigeration cycles, and hybridization of renewable energy power cycles to refrigeration cycles are the main four growing approaches in the hydrogen liquefaction context. Highlights Large-scale hydrogen liquefaction (LHL) methods are chronicled. A novel classification of hydrogen liquefaction systems is introduced. Hybrid conceptual hydrogen liquefaction plants are reviewed. Specific energy consumption (SEC) of hydrogen liquefiers is discussed.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   Techno-economic role of PV tracking technology in a hybrid PV-hydroelectric standalone power system   SCI SCIE

    Shabani, Masoume (Corresponding author at: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 3756, Rasht, Iran.) , Mahmoudimehr, Javad
    Applied energy v.212 ,pp. 84 - 108 , 2018 , 0306-2619 ,

    초록

    Abstract The main aim of this study is to evaluate the techno-economic role of the PV tracking technology in a hybrid photovoltaic-pump storage hydroelectric (PV-PSH) standalone power system. In this regard, a multi-objective optimization procedure is developed for the optimal design of a PV-PSH system and the developed procedure is separately implemented for the different types of PV tracking technologies such as horizontal and fixed-tilt panels (without any sun tracker), East - West oriented single-axis tracking, fixed-tilt azimuth tracking and dual-axis tracking systems. A coastal area in the south of Iran is considered as the case study; investment cost and loss of power supply probability (LPSP) are considered as the objective functions. Moreover, number of PV modules, turbine capacity, pipes diameters, and the volume, installation height and depth to diameter ratio of reservoir constitute the set of design variables and NSGAII is employed as the optimization algorithm. The results show that for the present case study, the fixed-tilt azimuth tracking technology leads to the minimum system cost with a suitable certainty under different LPSP values. Moreover, it results in the greatest match between the demanded and supplied power profiles. The results also illustrate that the appropriate selection of sun tracking technology in a hybrid PV-PSH system can lead to a savings of up to 18.2%. Finally, the economic superiority of the PV-PSH system over the common PV-battery system is investigated and proved for the case study. Highlights Evaluating techno-economic role of type of PV trackers in a hybrid PV-PSH system. Comparing different PV sun-trackers in terms of various techno-economic criteria. Optimal design of a PV- PSH system based on fluctuating power demand. Proving superiority of a PV-PSH system over the common PV-battery system. Presenting a novel optimization approach for optimal design of a PV-PSH system.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   A systematic comparison of different S-CO2 Brayton cycle layouts based on multi-objective optimization for applications in solar power tower plants   SCI SCIE

    Wang, Kun (Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China ) , Li, Ming-Jia (Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China ) , Guo, Jia-Qi (Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China ) , Li, Peiwen (Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China ) , Liu, Zhan-Bin (Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China)
    Applied energy v.212 ,pp. 109 - 121 , 2018 , 0306-2619 ,

    초록

    Abstract Supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) Brayton cycles are recently proposed to be integrated into the solar power tower (SPT) due to their high efficiency and compactness. Comparison of different S-CO 2 Brayton cycle layouts is of great significance for selecting a suitable one in the SPT plant. Both of the efficiency and specific work are important performance criteria for the SPT plant. However, previous studies compared only one individual criterion, or both of them just separately. This paper puts forward a systematic comparison of different S-CO 2 Brayton cycle layouts based on multi-objective optimizations. The two performance criteria are compared simultaneously between different S-CO 2 cycle layouts by comparing the Pareto optimal fronts obtained from multi-objective optimizations. The results suggest that the inter-cooling cycle layout and the partial-cooling cycle layout can generally yield the most excellent performances, and followed by the recompression cycle layout and the pre-compression cycle layout, while the simple recuperation cycle layout has the worst performances. The advantages of the partial-cooling cycle layout and the inter-cooling cycle layout are more prominent compared with the other cycle layouts in the case of high compressor inlet temperature. The provided systematic comparison can be helpful in selecting the most suitable cycle layout for the application in SPT when there are specified requirements for the efficiency and the specific work. In addition, novel salts with high upper limit temperature (higher than 650 °C) are recommended to be developed as the heat transfer fluid for improving system performances. Highlights Effects of key parameters on SPT with various S-CO 2 Brayton cycles are analyzed. Multi-objective optimization of SPT with different S-CO 2 cycles are performed. Different S-CO 2 cycles are compared for applications in SPT based on Pareto fronts.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   Optimization of V-Trough photovoltaic concentrators through genetic algorithms with heuristics based on Weibull distributions   SCI SCIE

    Arias-Rosales, André (Corresponding author.) , s , Mejí , a-Gutié , rrez, Ricardo
    Applied energy v.212 ,pp. 122 - 140 , 2018 , 0306-2619 ,

    초록

    Abstract Photovoltaic V-Troughs use simple and low-cost non-imaging optics, namely flat mirrors, to increase the solar harvesting area by concentrating the sunlight towards regular solar cells. The geometrical dispositions of the V-Trough’s elements, and the way in which they are dynamically adjusted to track the sun, condition the optical performance. In order to improve their harvesting capacity, their geometrical set-up can be tailored to specific conditions and performance priorities. Given the large number of possible configurations and the interdependence of the multiple parameters involved, this work studies genetic algorithms as a heuristic approach for navigating the space of possible solutions. Among the algorithms studied, a new genetic algorithm named “GA-WA” (Genetic Algorithm-Weibull Arias) is proposed. GA-WA uses new heuristic processes based on Weibull distributions. Several V-Trough performance indicators are proposed as objective functions that can be optimized with genetic algorithms: (i) C e ‾ (average effective concentration); (ii) Cost (cost of materials) and (iii) T sp (space required). Moreover, from the integration of these indicators, three multi-objective indices are proposed: (a) I COE ( C e ‾ versus Cost ); (b) MI COE ( C e ‾ versus Cost and C e ‾ versus T sp combined) and (c) MDI COE (similar to MI COE but with discretization considerations). The heuristic parameters of the studied genetic algorithms are optimized and their capacities are explored in a case study. The results are compared against reported V-Trough set-ups designed with the interactive software VTDesign for the same case study. It was found that genetic algorithms, such as the ones developed in this work, are effective in the performance indicators improvement, as well as efficient and flexible tools in the problem of defining the set-up of solar V-Troughs in personalized scenarios. The intuition and the more holistic exploration of a trained engineer with an interactive software can be complemented with the broader and less biased evolutionary optimization of a tool like GA-WA. Highlights A study of genetic algorithms to optimize the parameters of photovoltaic V-Troughs. A new genetic algorithm with heuristics based on Weibull distributions. The new algorithm resulted significantly superior against standard metaheuristics. New indicators and indices were proposed as multi-objective fitness functions. Genetic optimization compared with an interactive software in a case study.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   The cost of electric power outages in the residential sector: A willingness to pay approach   SCI SCIE

    Morrissey, Karyn (European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, United Kingdom ) , Plater, Andrew (Department of Geography and Planning, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom ) , Dean, Mary (Department of Geography and Planning, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom)
    Applied energy v.212 ,pp. 141 - 150 , 2018 , 0306-2619 ,

    초록

    Abstract Service providers and policymakers require data on the value of a service to consumers to justify investment. Due to the high reliability of electricity services in Europe, data on the value of constant electricity supply is not available. A choice experiment framework is used to estimate the welfare cost to households of power outages in northwest England. The willingness to pay (WTP) estimates obtained suggest that a household in northwest England is WTP; £5.29 to avoid having power outages in peak periods, £7.37 to have outages during the week rather than the weekend or bank holiday, and £31.37 to avoid power outages in winter. Households are also WTP between £1.17 (20 min) and £0.05 (480 min) to avoid a power outage depending on the length of the power outage. The use of a mixed logit model also demonstrated the impact of different socio-demographic and household characteristics on respondents WTP to avoid a power outage. From a policy perspective, the results provide data or a 'price' on the importance of constant electricity supply to domestic customers. Through engagement with policy makers and industry, these 'price signals' may be used to justify future investment and policy in the electricity sector. Highlights Heterogeneity in preferences for constant electricity supply in the residential sector is estimated. Households are willing to pay to avoid outages in winter, at peak times and at the weekend. Households with only electric heating have the highest willingness to pay. Differences in willingness to pay decrease across different groups as the length of power outages increase.

    원문보기

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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