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Human movement science 38건

  1. [해외논문]   Editorial Board   SCI SCIE SSCI


    Human movement science v.58 ,pp. ii - ii , 2018 , 0167-9457 ,

    초록

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  2. [해외논문]   Modulation of lower extremity joint stiffness, work and power at different walking and running speeds   SCI SCIE SSCI

    Jin, Li (Neuromechanics Lab, Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA ) , Hahn, Michael E. (Neuromechanics Lab, Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA)
    Human movement science v.58 ,pp. 1 - 9 , 2018 , 0167-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract Locomotion task and speed changes affect dynamic joint function. Walking and running require different coordination patterns of lower extremity joint mechanics. These coordination differences can result in measurable changes in kinematic and kinetic patterns. When locomotion speed changes, the functional role and movement strategy of each joint is altered. A deeper understanding of joint level mechanics and functional interactions will benefit rehabilitation programs and assistive device development. In this study, joint stiffness, joint mechanical work and power were assessed, as they relate to dynamic function of joints during locomotion. Ten young healthy subjects (5 males, 5 females) participated in a treadmill walking (0.8–2.0 m/s) and running (1.8–3.8 m/s) study. When running speed increased, the stiffness of all three joints tended to increase. The ankle joint played a dominant role during the stance phase of running, generating more positive work than the knee ( p = .003) and hip ( p = .0001). The knee and hip joint were more dominant in walking and running swing phase energy absorption and generation, respectively. When locomotion speeds increased, stance phase ankle positive work, swing phase knee negative work, and hip joint positive work tended to increase. These findings suggest that change of locomotion speed or task results in definitive changes to lower extremity joint level mechanics patterns. Highlights Ankle joint played a dominant role in the stance phase of running. Knee and hip joint were dominant in the swing phase of walking and running. Running required higher ankle joint stiffness compared to walking.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  3. [해외논문]   Relationship between jumping abilities and skeletal muscle architecture of lower limbs in humans: Systematic review and meta-analysis   SCI SCIE SSCI

    Ruiz-Cá (ECOFISTEM Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain ) , rdenas, J.D. (ECOFISTEM Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain ) , Rodrí (ECOFISTEM Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain) , guez-Juan, J.J. , Rí , os-Dí , az, J.
    Human movement science v.58 ,pp. 10 - 20 , 2018 , 0167-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the influence of skeletal muscle architecture (SMA) features measured by 2-D ultrasonography on jumping performance in humans. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted, registry number: CRD42016043602. The scientific literature was systematically searched in eight databases, last run on March 14th, 2017. Cross-sectional studies focused on the association between SMA features and vertical jumping performance were selected. A random-effects model was used to analyze the influence of lower-limb SMA and maximal jump height. A total of 11 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis and 6 studies were selected for meta-analysis. 250 correlations were reviewed across studies. The vast majority were either not statistically significant (185; 74%), weak or very weak (169; 68%) for different jump modalities; counter-movement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), and drop jump. There was insufficient data to perform meta-analysis on muscles other than vastus lateralis for CMJ and SJ. The meta-analyses did not yield any significant association between vastus lateralis SMA and SJ height. Only a significant overall association was shown between vastus lateralis thickness and CMJ height (summary-r = 0.28; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −0.05 to 0.48; p = .059) for a 90% CI level. No differences were found between summary-r coefficients for SMA parameters and jump height during both jumps (CMJ: χ 2 = 2.43; df = 2; p = .30; SJ: χ 2 = 0.45; df = 2; p = .80) with a low heterogeneity ratio. Current evidence does not suggest a great influence of lower-limb SMA on vertical jumping performance in humans. Highlights Associations between skeletal muscle architecture and jumping abilities are shown. Performance on jumping is not clearly explained by skeletal muscle architecture. 2-D ultrasonography could not be useful as a predictor of jumping performance.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  4. [해외논문]   Effects of running retraining on biomechanical factors associated with lower limb injury   SCI SCIE SSCI

    Dunn, Marcus D. (Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S10 2BP, UK ) , Claxton, David B. (Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S10 2BP, UK ) , Fletcher, Graham (The University of Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC, Canada ) , Wheat, Jonathan S. (Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S10 2BP, UK ) , Binney, David M. (Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S10 2BP, UK)
    Human movement science v.58 ,pp. 21 - 31 , 2018 , 0167-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract Injury risk is an important concern for runners; however, limited evidence exists regarding changes to injury risk following running style retraining. Biomechanical factors, such as absolute peak free moment, knee abduction impulse, peak foot eversion and foot eversion excursion, have been shown to predict lower limb injury. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Pose running retraining on biomechanical factors associated with lower limb running injury. Twenty uninjured recreational runners were pair-matched based on their five km run time performance and randomly assigned to control (n = 10) and intervention (three 2-h Pose running retraining sessions) groups (n = 10). Three dimensional kinetic and kinematic data were collected from all participants running at relative (REL: 1.5 km·h −1 below respiratory compensation point) and absolute (ABS: 4.5 m·s −1 ) speeds. Biomechanical factors associated with lower limb injury, as well as selected kinematic variables (to aid interpretation), were assessed. Following a six-week, non-coached time-period, all assessments were repeated. No changes to the biomechanical factors associated with lower limb injury examined in this study were observed ( P > .05). Intervention group participants (presented as pre- and post-intervention respectively) exhibited an increased foot strike index (REL speed: 21.79–42.66%; ES W = 4.73; P = .012 and ABS speed: 22.38–46.98%; ES W = 2.83; P = .008), reduced take-off distance (REL speed: −0.35 to −0.32 m; ES W = 0.75; P = .012), increased knee flexion at initial contact (REL speed: −14.11 to −18.50°; ES W = −0.88; P = .003), increased ankle dorsiflexion at terminal stance (REL speed: −33.61 to −28.35°; ES W = 1.57; P = .036) and reduced stance time (ABS speed: 0.21–0.19 s; ES W = −0.85; P = .018). Finally, five km run time did not change (22:04–22:19 min; ES W = 0.07; P = .229). It was concluded that following Pose running retraining, retrained participants adopted a running style that was different to their normal style without changing specific, biomechanical factors associated with lower limb injury or compromising performance. Highlights Running style was retrained in a short time period using Pose running retraining. Retraining did not change biomechanical factors associated with lower limb injury. Retraining did not compromise five km time trial performance.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   Adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand improves performance when online visual feedback is disturbed   SCI SCIE SSCI

    Raveh, Eitan (Occupational Therapy Department, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel ) , Portnoy, Sigal (Occupational Therapy Department, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel ) , Friedman, Jason (Physical Therapy Department, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel)
    Human movement science v.58 ,pp. 32 - 40 , 2018 , 0167-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract We investigated whether adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand, when visual feedback is disturbed, can improve performance during a functional test. For this purpose, able-bodied subjects, activating a myoelectric-controlled hand attached to their right hand performed the modified Box & Blocks test, grasping and manipulating wooden blocks over a partition. This was performed in 3 conditions, using a repeated-measures design: in full light, in a dark room where visual feedback was disturbed and no auditory feedback – one time with the addition of tactile feedback provided during object grasping and manipulation, and one time without any tactile feedback. The average time needed to transfer one block was measured, and an infrared camera was used to give information on the number of grasping errors during performance of the test. Our results show that when vibrotactile feedback was provided, performance time was reduced significantly, compared with when no vibrotactile feedback was available. Furthermore, the accuracy of grasping and manipulation was improved, reflected by significantly fewer errors during test performance. In conclusion, adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand has positive effects on functional performance when visual feedback is disturbed. This may have applications to current myoelectric-controlled hands, as adding tactile feedback may help prosthesis users to improve their functional ability during daily life activities in different environments, particularly when limited visual feedback is available or desirable. Highlights Myoelectric-controlled prosthetic hand users have problems grasping without vision. We tested if vibrotactile feedback improves performance when vision is disturbed. The goal is to enable better grasping performance, both in speed and accuracy. We found that vibrotactile feedback was nearly as good as vision for grasping. Vibrotactile feedback can sometimes replace vision, allowing greater flexibility.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   Trunk and pelvic dynamics during transient turns among individuals with unilateral traumatic lower limb amputation   SCI SCIE SSCI

    Golyski, Pawel R. (Research & Development Service, Department of Rehabilitation, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA ) , Hendershot, Brad D. (Research & Development Service, Department of Rehabilitation, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA)
    Human movement science v.58 ,pp. 41 - 54 , 2018 , 0167-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract Prior work has identified alterations in trunk-pelvic dynamics with lower limb amputation (LLA) during in-line walking; however, evaluations of other ambulatory tasks are limited. Turns are ubiquitous in daily life but can be challenging for individuals with LLA, prompting additional or unique proximal compensations when changing direction, which over time may lead to development of low back pain. We hypothesized such proximal kinematic differences between persons with and without LLA would exist in the sagittal and frontal planes. Three-dimensional trunk and pelvic kinematics, translational and rotational momenta, and coordination phase/variability were compared among eight persons with unilateral LLA (4 with transfemoral amputation and 4 with transtibial amputation), and five uninjured controls, who performed 90-degree turns to the left (n = 10) and right (n = 10). Participants self-selected the turn strategy (i.e., step vs. spin) and pivot limb in response to verbal cues regarding when and which direction to turn. Coordination variability and translational angular momenta did not differ between groups in either turn type. During spin turns, frontal rotational angular momenta were larger and frontal trunk-pelvis range of motion was smaller among persons with vs. without LLA. During step turns, pelvis leading transverse coordination was more frequent, frontal trunk rotational angular momentum was smaller, and sagittal pelvis range of motion was larger among persons with vs. without LLA. Altered and task-dependent modulation of trunk-pelvic dynamics among persons with LLA provides additional support for a potential link between repeated exposures to altered trunk-pelvic dynamics with elevated low back pain risk. Highlights Trunk-pelvis (TP) dynamics in 90-degree turns assessed among persons with LLA. TP coordination phases were similar between persons with and without LLA. TP ranges of motion differed with vs. without LLA, depending on plane. TP ranges of momenta in persons with vs. without LLA differed from in-line walking. Altered TP dynamics suggest potential pathways for developing pain secondary to LLA.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  7. [해외논문]   Individual and dyadic rope turning as a window into social coordination   SCI SCIE SSCI

    Huys, Raoul (Université) , Kolodziej, Agnieszka (de Toulouse, UMR 5549 CERCO (Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition), UPS, CNRS, Pavillon Baudot CHU Purpan, 31052 Toulouse, France ) , Lagarde, Julien (Université) , Farrer, Chlö (de Toulouse, UMR 5549 CERCO (Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition), UPS, CNRS, Pavillon Baudot CHU Purpan, 31052 Toulouse, France ) , é (EuroMov, Université) , (de Montpellier, 700 Avenue du Pic Saint Loup, 34090 Montpellier, France ) , Darmana, Robert (Université) , Zanone, Pier-Giorgio (de Toulouse, UMR 5549 CERCO (Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition), UPS, CNRS, Pavillon Baudot CHU Purpan, 31052 Toulouse, France )
    Human movement science v.58 ,pp. 55 - 68 , 2018 , 0167-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract The spontaneous and intentional movement coordination between peoples is well understood. Less is known about such interactions when the coordination is subordinate to the task and when the task involves, next to vision, mechanically induced haptic and kinesthetic coupling between dyadic partners. We therefore investigated dyadic jump rope turning. Fifteen dyadic pairs conjointly turned a jump rope to which five markers were equidistantly attached, and whose movements were recorded in 3D. In addition, each participant turned one side of the rope while the other side was quasi-fixed in an individual baseline condition. The participants’ goal was to turn the rope regularly and smoothly. Individual spontaneous turning frequencies differed substantially across participants. Yet, dyadic pairs spontaneously turned the rope at a common frequency, indicative of frequency entrainment. The dyadic rope rotations were less variable despite weaker between near-hand marker coordination than the individual rope rotations, and the degree of performance improvement was most pronounced for participants who were paired with a partner who performed better in the individual condition. The direction and relative strength of the coupling between partners varied substantially across dyads, but the degree of coupling asymmetry had no substantial effect on the rope tuning quality. The absolute degree in which dyadic partners adjusted to each other, however, scaled moderately with their turning performance. Although the individual performances did not predict the dyadic performances, the difference in individual performance between dyadic partners had some predictive value for the dyadic performance. In combination, these results indicate that the partners were functionally adapting to each other in order to satisfy the task goal and suggest that the relative performance differences rather than the individual performances has predictive value for conjoint action. Highlights Dyadic (rope turning) performance is better than individual performance. Between dyadic partner rope-turning variability are functional adaptations. Turning frequency affects the individual and dyadic condition differentially. Individual performance hardly predicts dyadic performance.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  8. [해외논문]   Executive functions, visual-motor coordination, physical fitness and academic achievement: Longitudinal relations in typically developing children   SCI SCIE SSCI

    Oberer, Nicole (Corresponding author.) , Gashaj, Venera , Roebers, Claudia M.
    Human movement science v.58 ,pp. 69 - 79 , 2018 , 0167-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract The present longitudinal study included different school readiness factors measured in kindergarten with the aim to predict later academic achievement in second grade. Based on data of N = 134 children, the predictive power of executive functions, visual-motor coordination and physical fitness on later academic achievement was estimated using a latent variable approach. By entering all three predictors simultaneously into the model to predict later academic achievement, significant effects of executive functions and visual-motor coordination on later academic achievement were found. The influence of physical fitness was found to be substantial but indirect via executive functions. The cognitive stimulation hypothesis as well as the automaticity hypothesis are discussed as an explanation for the reported relations. Highlights Visual-motor coordination is an often overlooked indicator of school readiness. Early physical fitness has only an indirect effect on later achievement. Executive functions are the underlying mechanism for the indirect effect of fitness.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  9. [해외논문]   Effects of scaling task constraints on emergent behaviours in children's racquet sports performance   SCI SCIE SSCI

    Fitzpatrick, Anna (Centre for Sports Engineering Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK ) , Davids, Keith (Centre for Sports Engineering Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK ) , Stone, Joseph A. (Academy of Sport and Physical Activity, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK)
    Human movement science v.58 ,pp. 80 - 87 , 2018 , 0167-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract Manipulating task constraints by scaling key features like space and equipment is considered an effective method for enhancing performance development and refining movement patterns in sport. Despite this, it is currently unclear whether scaled manipulation of task constraints would impact emergent movement behaviours in young children, affording learners opportunities to develop relevant skills. Here, we sought to investigate how scaling task constraints during 8 weeks of mini tennis training shaped backhand stroke development. Two groups, control (n = 8, age = 7.2 ± 0.6 years) and experimental (n = 8, age 7.4 ± 0.4 years), underwent practice using constraints-based manipulations, with a specific field of affordances designed for backhand strokes as the experimental treatment. To evaluate intervention effects, pre- and post-test match-play characteristics (e.g. forehand and backhand percentage strokes) and measures from a tennis-specific skills test (e.g. forehand and backhand technical proficiency), were evaluated. Post intervention, the experimental group performed a greater percentage of backhand strokes out of total number of shots played (46.7 ± 3.3%). There was also a significantly greater percentage of backhand winners out of total backhand strokes observed (5.5 ± 3.0%), compared to the control group during match-play (backhands = 22.4 ± 6.5%; backhand winners = 1.0 ± 3.6%). The experimental group also demonstrated improvements in forehand and backhand technical proficiency and the ability to maintain a rally with a coach, compared to the control group. In conclusion, scaled manipulations implemented here elicited more functional performance behaviours than standard Mini Tennis Red constraints. Results suggested how human movement scientists may scale task constraint manipulations to augment young athletes' performance development.

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    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  10. [해외논문]   Integration of visual feedback and motor learning: Corticospinal vs. corticobulbar pathway   SCI SCIE SSCI

    Park, Seoung Hoon (Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA ) , Casamento-Moran, Agostina (Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA ) , Singer, Michele L. (Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA ) , Ernster, Alayna E. (Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA ) , Yacoubi, Basma (Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA ) , Humbert, Ianessa A. (Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA ) , Christou, Evangelos A. (Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA)
    Human movement science v.58 ,pp. 88 - 96 , 2018 , 0167-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract Although movement is controlled by different descending pathways, it remains unknown whether the integration of visual feedback and motor learning differs for movements controlled by different descending pathways. Here, we compare motor control and learning of the ankle joint and tongue because they are primarily controlled by the corticospinal and corticobulbar pathways, respectively. Twelve young adults (19.63 ± 2.11 years, 6 females) practiced a tracking task (combination of 0.02, 0.37, 0.5, and 1 Hz) with ankle dorsiflexion and with tongue elevation for 100 trials. The participants practiced each effector (ankle and tongue) in different days and the order of the effector was counterbalanced. Following practice, participants performed the same tracking task with concurrent contractions of the tongue and ankle (dual tracking task; transfer) with three different visual feedback conditions (no visual feedback, visual feedback only for ankle, visual feedback only for tongue). We quantified the force accuracy (RMSE) from each effector during the practice and transfer periods. During practice, the force accuracy and performance improvement to the visuomotor task was greater for the ankle dorsiflexion than tongue elevation. During the transfer task, the ankle dorsiflexion was more accurate than tongue elevation, independent of whether visual feedback was given for the ankle or tongue. The greater performance improvement for the ankle dorsiflexion during practice was related to superior transfer performance. These findings suggest that the corticospinal pathway integrates visual feedback more efficiently than the corticobulbar pathway, which enhances performance and learning of visuomotor tasks. Highlights Performing a visuomotor task is better for ankle dorsiflexion than tongue elevation. Learning a visuomotor task is better for ankle dorsiflexion than tongue elevation. Corticospinal pathway integrates visual feedback better than corticobulbar pathway.

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