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Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences 19건

  1. [국내논문]   SILAGE FERMENTATION AND SILAGE ADDITIVES - Review -  

    Bolsen, K.K. (Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University ) , Ashbell, G. (Feed Conservation Laboratory, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center ) , Weinberg, Z.G. (Feed Conservation Laboratory, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.5 ,pp. 483 - 493 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Advances in silage technology, including precision chop forage harvesters, improved silos, polyethylene sheeting, shear cutting silo unloaders, and the introduction of total mixed rations, have made silage the principal method of forage preservation. A better understanding of the biochemistry and microbiology of the four phases of the ensiling process has also led to the development of numerous silage additives. Although acids and acid salts still are used to ensile low-DM forages in wet climates, bacterial inoculants have become the most widely used silage additives in the past decade. Commercial inoculants can assure a rapid and efficient fermentation phase; however, in the future, these products also must contribute to other areas of silage management, including the inhibition of enterobacteria, clostridia, and yeasts and molds. Nonprotein nitrogen additives have the problems of handling, application, and reduced preservation efficiency, which have limited their wide spread use. Aerobic deterioration in the feedout phase continues to be a serious problem, especially in high-DM silages. The introduction of competitive strains of propionic acid-producing bacteria, which could assure aerobically stable silages, would improve most commercial additives. New technologies are needed that would allow the farmer to assess the chemical and microbial status of the silage crop on a given day and then use the appropriate additive(s).

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  2. [국내논문]   METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE IN VIVO MEASUREMENT OF ILEAL AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITY IN PIGS - A REVIEW -  

    Yin, Y.-L. (Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, The Queen's University of Belfast ) , McGracken, Kelvin J. (Agricultural and Environmental Science Division, Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.5 ,pp. 495 - 502 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Much recent research on protein and amino acid (AA) digestive physiology of pigs has been concerned with measurement of the ileal apparent and true digestion and absorption. For measurement of the ileal apparent digestibility of AA, the steered ileo-caecal valve cannulation (SICV) and the ileo-rectal anastomosis (IRA) techniques appear to be the more reliable and simple methods, when compared with any methods requiring use of a marker for calculation of digestibility, or with the complex techniques of ileo-caecal re-entrant cannula (ICRC) and the postvalve ileo-colic re-entrant cannula (IPVC). On the other hand, the peptide alimentation ultrafiltration methods might be a better choice for measurement of the ileal endogenous nitrogen (N) and AA flow in a routine feedstuff analysis, although the classical method of $^{15}N-isotope$ dilution method is still a standard method for N and AA nutrition research in pigs.

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  3. [국내논문]   STUDIES ON MILK PRODUCTION AND GROWTH OF FRIESIAN × BUNAJI CROSSES: I. DAIRY PERFORMANCE  

    Malau-Aduli, A.E.O. (Department of Animal Science, University of Adelaide, Waite Agricultural Research Institute ) , Abubaker, B.Y. (National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University ) , Ehoche, O.W. (National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University ) , Dim, N.I. (Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.5 ,pp. 503 - 508 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    The data analysed consisted of records on lactation length (LL), total lactation yield (TLY), estimated 305-day yield (305 DY), days dry (DDRY), age at frist calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI) of 448 Friesian $\times$ Bunaji halfbreds that calved over a twenty-three year period (1967-1989) at the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika, Nigeria. Least squares means of LL, TLY, 305DY, DDRY, AFC and CI were 250 days, 1,988 kg, 2,420 kg, 102 days, 35 months and 390 days, respectively. Parity, season and year of calving significantly affected LL, TLY (p $\times$ Bunaji crossbreeding programme was successful and beneficial in that the $F_1$ crosses calved at a younger age, produced twice as much milk, had longer lactations and slightly shorter calving intervals than the indigenous Bunaji.

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  4. [국내논문]   STUDIES ON MILK PRODUCTION AND GROWTH OF FRIESIAN × BUNAJI CROSSES: II. GROWTH TO YEARLING AGE  

    Malau-Aduli, A.E.O. (Department of Animal Science, University of Adelaide, Waite Agricultural Research Institute ) , Abubakar, B.Y. (National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University ) , Dim, N.I. (Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.5 ,pp. 509 - 513 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    The data analysed consisted of body weight records at birth, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age of 549 half Friesian $\times$ Bunaji crossbred heifers collected over a twenty-five year period (1965-1989). Least squares $means{\pm}s.e$ . of body weights at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age were $26.7{\pm}1.3$ , $72.4{\pm}4.5$ , $112.9{\pm}6.9$ , $147.2{\pm}9.2$ and $182.1{\pm}11.1kg$ , respectively. Year of birth was highly significant (p $F_1$ crosses, since they grew faster than the indigenous Bunaji from brith to yearling age. The study also indicated that heifer selection for yearling body weight can be done early on the basis of weights at 3 and 6 months of age.

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  5. [국내논문]   RELATIVE EFFICIENCIES OF YELLOW CAROTENOIDS FOR EGG YOLK PIGMENTATION  

    Balnave, D. (Department of Animal Science, University of Sydney ) , Bird, J.N. (Roche Products Pty. Ltd., Vitamin and Fine Chemicals Division)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.5 ,pp. 515 - 517 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    The relative efficiencies of deposition into egg yolk of apo-carotenoic acid ester(APO-E, CAROPHYLL Yellow) and saponified marigold xanthophylls (MX), in the presence of canthaxanthin (CN), were determined using a wheat-based diet. APO-E was deposited with an efficiency of 50 percent and MX with an efficiency between 13 and 20 percent. The dose response relationship for MX was curvilinear with a decreased efficiency at higher concentrations. Canthaxanthin was deposited with and efficiency of 38 percent, irrespective of the source of yellow xanthophylls, up to a dietary concentration of 5.5 mg/kg. At a dietary MX concentration of 8.3 mg/kg the efficiency of deposition of CN declined to 24 percent. The results confirm that the replacement ratio of MX : APO-E is between 3 : 1 and 4 : 1 depending on the dietary inclusion of marigold pigment.

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  6. [국내논문]   MICROBIAL COLONISATION AND DEGRADATION OF SOME FIBROUS CROP RESIDUES IN THE RUMEN OF GOATS  

    Ho, Y.W. (Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia ) , Abdullah, N. (Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia ) , Jalaludin, S. (Department of Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.5 ,pp. 519 - 524 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    An investigation was carried out to study the microbial colonization and degradation of five crop residues, viz., sago waste, rice straw, oil palm trunk shavings, untreated palm press fibre and palm press fibre teated with 3% ammonium hydroxide in the rumen of goats. Colonisation by rumen bacteria and fungi was already established on all the five crop residues 8 h after incubation. However, the extent of colonization varied among the crop residues. Microbial colonization was poor on palm press fibre (treated and untreated) but more extensive on sago waste, oil palm trunk shavings and rice straw. By 24 h, most of the soft-walled tissues in sago waste, rice straw and oil palm trunk shavings were degraded leaving the thick-walled tissues extensively colonized by bacteria and fungi. Degradation on palm press fibre was still limited. At 48 h, the thick-walled tissues of sago waste, oil palm trunk shavings and rice straw showed various degrees of degradation - from small erosion zones to large digested areas. Bacterial growth was similar to that at 24 h but fungal growth was less. On palm press fibre, microbial colonization was more extensive than at 24 h but degradation of the fibres was still limited. Degradation of all the five crop residues at 72 h was somewhat similar to that at 48 h. Overall, microbial colonization and degradation were the most extensive on sago waste, followed by rice straw and oil palm trunk shavings, and the least on palm press fibre (treated and untreated). Dry matter loss of the five crop residues at the various incubation periods also showed the same order of degradation.

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  7. [국내논문]   A STUDY ON THE MINERAL STATUS OF BEEF AND DAIRY CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN CENTRAL THAILAND  

    Kumagai, H. (Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University ) , Swasdiphanich, S. (Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University ) , Prucsasri, P. (Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University ) , Yimmongkol, S. (Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University ) , Rengsirikul, B. (Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University ) , Thammageeratiwong, P. (Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.5 ,pp. 525 - 531 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Nutritional status of minerals of beef and dairy cattle and buffalo in central Thailand were investigated by evaluating the mineral concentrations in feedstuff and blood plasma of animals. Three crossbred beef cow herds, a native cow herd, a buffalo female herd and 3 dairy cattle herds which consisted of the herds of lactating cows, dry cows and heifers were studied in both rainy and hot seasons. Low Na concentrations ( $0.65{\mu}g/ml$ ) existed in each herd. The animals which showed subnormal plasma Se concentrations( $0.03{\mu}g/ml$ ) were observed in beef cow herds. The concentrations of Ca, Mg and Zn in plasma of animals were normal. Attention should be paid to the deficiencies in Na, Cu and Se of the animals in central Thailand.

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  8. [국내논문]   IN SITU RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETICS OF FORAGES AND FEED BYPRODUCTS IN MALE NILI-RAVI BUFFALO CALVES  

    Sarwar, M. (Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Agriculture ) , Mahmood, S. (Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Agriculture ) , Abbas, W. (Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Agriculture ) , Ali, C.S. (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.5 ,pp. 533 - 538 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    The rate and extent of digestion of dietary carbohydrates has a tremendous impact on ruminal fermentation and the productivity of the animals. The objective of the study was to determine the dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradabilities and rate and extent of feed byproducts (cotton seed cake, wheat bran), legumes [berseem (Egyptian clover), lucern (Medicago sativa), cowpeas (Vigna sinensis)], grasses [maize (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare)] and wheat straw in ruminally fistulated male buffalo calves. By using nylon bags, 10 grams sample was exposed to the ruminal fermentation for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 16, 24, 36, 48 and 96 hours. Dry matter and NDF degradability was measured at 48 hours. Extent of DM and NDF disappearance was determined at each time point. Rates of disappearance of DM and NDF were determined by regressing the natural logarithm of the percentage of original DM and NDF remaining in the bags between 1 and 96 hours. The dry matter digestibility (DMD) of the feed byproducts (FBP) and legume forages when incubated in the rumen of male buffalo calves were greater (p

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  9. [국내논문]   EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FIBER ON THE INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF DOMESTIC GEESE  

    Chiou, Peter W.S. (Department of Animal Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University ) , Lu, T.W. (Department of Animal Sciences & Technology, National Pingtung Polytechnic Institute ) , Hsu, J.C. (Department of Animal Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University ) , Yu, B. (Department of Animal Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.5 ,pp. 539 - 550 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Experiment was conducted to study the effect of sources of dietary fiber on the intestinal morphology of geese. Sixty white Roman geese of two-week-old were divided randomly into six groups and were fed with isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets which contain alfalfa meal, barley hull, rice hull, purified cellulose, lignin, or pectin as the major dietary source of fiber. Different sources of dietary fiber significantly influenced the villi height and the crypt depth in the duodenum, and the villi height and the muscle layer thickness in the ileum (p $968.5{\mu}m$ ), whereas the lignin group was significantly shortest villus and deepest crypt depth (p

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  10. [국내논문]   INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN ON THE APPARENT ABSORPTION AND RETENTION OF SELENIUM IN SHEEP  

    Serra, A.B. (Central Luzon State University ) , Serra, S.D. (Faculty of Life and Environmental Science (formerly Faculty of Agriculture), Shimane University ) , Fujihara, T. (Faculty of Life and Environmental Science (formerly Faculty of Agriculture), Shimane University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.5 ,pp. 551 - 556 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Selenium (Se) apparent absorption and retention in sheep as influenced by diets differing in protein content through soybean meal supplementation was studied. A $3{\times}3$ Latin square design was used with three Japanese Corriedale wethers (45 kg average body weight), three periods, and three dietary treatments. In each period, 7 d dietary adjustment was followed by 5 d total collection of urine and feces. The three dietary treatments were : Diet 1, without soybean meal supplementation (14% crude protein, CP); Diet 2, with 10% soybean meal supplementation (16.5% CP); and Diet 3, with 20% soybean meal supplementation (19% CP). All the diets had a Se supplementation in the form of sodium selenite at 0.2 mg Se/kg dietary DM. The dietary DM intake of the animals was 2% of their body weight. No significant differences were obtained among the three dietary treatments of the Se balance of the animals. However, as percent of Se intake, only urinary Se concentration of Diet 3 was markedly lower (p Diet 2 > Diet 1 resulting a Se absorbed as percent of Se intake of 58.9%, 62.3% and 68.2% for Diets 3, 2 and 1, respectively but their differences among each other were insignificant. No significant differences that were observed either on Se retained as percent of intake (Diet 1, 48.2%; Diet 2, 45.2%; Diet 3, 46.0%) or Se retained as percent of Se absorbed (Diet 1, 70.7%; Diet 2, 72.4%; Diet 3, 77.9%). Significant correlation coefficients among the various measures of Se utilization were also observed. Regression analysis showed the following equation: Y = 93.8 - 1.86X (p $r^{2}=0.48$ ), where Y is the Se absorbed as percent of Se intake (%) and X is the dietary protein content (%). This study concludes that Se requirement in sheep is greater when dietary protein content is high.

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