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Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences 18건

  1. [국내논문]   STRATEGIES TO REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION FROM ANIMAL MANURE: PRINCIPLES AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT - A REVIEW -  

    Paik, I.K. (Department of Animal Science, Chung-Ang University ) , Blair, Robert (Department of Animal Science, University of British Columbia ) , Jacob, Jacqueline (Department of Animal Science, University of British Columbia)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.6 ,pp. 615 - 635 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    The animal industry must be environmentally sound to ensure its long-term sustainable growth. Livestock wastes mostly manure, can be a valuable resource as well as a potential hazard to environment. The first option of manure management is developing an 'environmentally sound' feeding program and feeds so there are less excreted nutrients that need to be managed. Once the manure is produced it can be best utilized as a fertilizer of a soil conditioner. In many countries the amount of manure that can be spread on land depends on the nutrient requirements of the crop being grown. The laws specify maximum application rates and not animal stocking rates. Farmer who reduce the N and P component of manure can release pressure on the environment without having to reduce the number of animals. There are alternative system for housing and manure treatment which generate manure that are easier to handle and have less pollutants or more economic value. Treated animal waste may also be used as a feedstuff or fuel source. Most of the options of waste management result in increased costs to implement. It is necessary to assess the economics in order to find an acceptable compromise between the increased costs and the benefit to the environment. Animal welfare is also becoming more and more of an issue and it will lead to systems where animals are kept in less confined environment. The new system will have a great impact in the waste management system in the future.

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  2. [국내논문]   STUDIES ON PROTEIN DEGRADABILITIES OF FEEDSTUFFS IN BANGLADESH  

    Khandaker, Z.H. (Department of Animal Nutrition, Bangladesh Agricultural University ) , Tareque, A.M.M. (Department of Animal Nutrition, Bangladesh Agricultural University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.6 ,pp. 637 - 642 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    This experiment was conducted to determine RDP values of locally available feedstuffs that are commonly used in ruminant rations in Bangladesh. Four cattle were fistulated in the rumen for the in situ nylon bag studies. Seventeen different feedstuff sample (9 roughages and 8 concentrates) were evaluated in $4{\times}14cm$ nylon bags and incubated in the rumen for different periods of time (2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h). The variation in crude protein (CP) contents reflected on the average CP disappearance value throughout the rumen incubation. Soluble fraction (a), insoluble but degradable fraction (b) along with the rate of degradation also varied widely among the various feedstuffs. Under 2% of rumen outflow rate, the percentages of the calculated protein degradabilities of roughages were rice straw, 16.7; maize grass, 70.6; oat grass, 70.8; dhal grass, 71.1; sunhemp, 78.4; napier grass, 62.4; matikalai grass, 72.1; khesarikalai grass, 76.9 and daincha browse, 78.4, respectively. The results in the protein degradabilities (%) in 8% ruminal outflow rate of concentrates were wheat bran, 61.6; rice polish (red), 61.3; rice polish (auto), 30.9; mustard oil cake, 71.8; sesame oil cake, 74.2; coconut oil cake, 57.9; soybean meal, 49.2 and fish meal, 37.9, respectively.

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  3. [국내논문]   POTASSIUM REQUIREMENT OF MULE DUCKLINGS  

    Chu, C.L. (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University ) , Wei, H.W. (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University ) , Chen, B.J. (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University ) , Shen, T.F. (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.6 ,pp. 643 - 646 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Experiments were conducted to determine potassium (K) requirement of mule ducklings. One-day-old ducklings with equal number of both sexes were fed diets containing graded levels of K for three weeks. In experiment 1, corn-soybean meal diet (CP 18.7%, ME 2,890 kcal/kg, K 0.80%) was used. The addition of K (0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40%) to the diet by potassium carbonate resulted in a decrease in weight gain and feed efficiency with the group fed on basal diet having the best performance. This means that the existing K in the basal diet is adequate for the growth of ducklings. In experiment 2, low K corn-isolated soy protein diet (K, 0.19%) was used. The supplementation of K (0.00, 0.16, 0.32, 0.48, 0.64%) resulted in an increase in weight gain and feed efficiency with the control group having the lowest performance. The minimum K requirement was found to be 0.49% for both maximum growth and best feed efficiency as determined by using bent-stick model.

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  4. [국내논문]   VALUE OF BARLEY GRAIN AND COTTONSEED CAKE AS SUPPLEMENTS TO FOURWING SALTBUSH, AND THE LIVE WEIGHT GAINS AND WATER CONSUMPTION OF SHEEP FED THE DIETS  

    Rehman, Atiq-ur (Arid Zone Research Institute (Pakistan Agricultural Research Council) ) , Thompson, E.F. (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) ) , Rafique, S. (Arid Zone Research Institute (Pakistan Agricultural Research Council))
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.6 ,pp. 647 - 650 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Fifteen sheep were used in a trial which compared the feeding value of whole barley gain and cottonseed cake as supplements to a basal diet of leaves of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens). Diet SB contained 700 g (air-dry matter) of saltbush alone, diet SB + BG contained 700 g SB with 400 g whole barley grain and diet SB + CS contained 700 g SB with 400 g cottonseed cake. The digestibility of the dry matter of diets SB (69%) and SB + CS (70%) were lower (p 0.05), but their water consumption was higher (p

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  5. [국내논문]   FOOD INTAKE AND CROP EMPTYING RATE OF CHICKENS TREATED WITH GUANETHIDINE  

    Furuse, M. (Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University ) , Choi, Y.H. (Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University ) , Mabayo, R.T. (Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University ) , Sugahara, K. (Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University ) , Okumura, J. (Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.6 ,pp. 651 - 654 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    The effect of guanethidine on feeding behavior was investigated in the chicken. Graded levels of chronically administered guanethidine, an adrenergic neurone blocker, at 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, decreased body weight gain and food intake in a dose dependent manner. The effect of acute guanethidine administration on crop emptying rate of the chicken was also investigated. The highest level (10 mg i.v./kg body weight) of guanethidine significantly delayed crop emptying compared with the control. These results suggest that the sympathetic nervous system in the chicken is an important factor for the regulation of feeding behavior associated with food passage from the crop.

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  6. [국내논문]   EFFECTS OF HIGH BY-PRODUCT DIETS CONTAINING RICE BRAN AND BEET PULP ON THE SITE AND EXTENT OF DIGESTION AND MICROBIAL SYNTHESIS IN STEERS  

    Zhao, Y. (Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Hiroshima University ) , Taniguchi, K. (Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Hiroshima University ) , Obitsu, T. (Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Hiroshima University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.6 ,pp. 655 - 665 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    The effects of feeding rice bran and beet pulp mixtures on the site and extent of digestion and microbial synthesis in fattening steers were studied. Three Holstein steers fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were fed four diets in a $4{\times}3$ Youden square design. The four diets consisted of 15% Italian ryegrass hay and 85% concentrate as a control diet which included 72% rolled barley, 20% rice bran plus 40% beet pulp, 30% rice bran plus 30% beet pulp or 40% rice bran plus 20% beet pulp. All diets provided 1.8 times digestible energy required for maintenance. The digestibility of fat in the small intestine (% of flow) showed an increase with rice bran content among the by-product diets. Digestibility of structural carbohydrate both in the rumen and the whole digestive tract decreased linearly with rice bran content. The digestibility of nonstructural carbohydrate was not affected by rice bran content, but that of nonstructural, nonstarch polysaccharides was higher in the rumen and lower in the large intestine for the by-product diets than for the control diet. A rice bran content of more than 30% in the by-product diets severely inhibits ruminal microbial synthesis and digestible energy intake in fattening steers.

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  7. [국내논문]   DIGESTION OF STARCH AND NITROGEN IN DIFFERENT PART OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL OF DEFAUNATED MURRAH BUFFALO (Bubalu bubalis) CALVES  

    Chaudhary, L.C. (Microbiology Section, Animal Nutrition Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute ) , Srivastava, A. (Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division National Dairy Research Institute)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.6 ,pp. 667 - 670 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Four Murrah male buffalo calves with an average body weight of $188{\pm}1.6kg$ each fitted with rumen and abomasal cannula were subjected to defaunation followed by refaunation. The animals were offered wheat straw and a concentrate mixture. There was no difference in dry matter, starch and nitrogen intake in defaunated and refaunated buffalo calves. Production of ruminal total volatile fatty acid and acetate : propionate ratio decreased (p

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  8. [국내논문]   HEMAGGLUTINATION AND COLONY HYBRIDIZATION FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ENTEROTOXIGENIC Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM HEALTHY PIG  

    Choi, S.H. (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University ) , Oh, M.J. (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University ) , Sung, C. (Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Chungnam National University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.6 ,pp. 671 - 677 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Erythrocytes from three different animal species were used to determine mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA) and mannose-resistant hemagglutination (MRHA) of 755 isolates obtained from rectal swabs of healthy pig. In addition, colony hybridization using digoxigenin-dUTP labeled polynucleotide probes was performed for the detection of heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxin genes carried by MRHA positive isolates. Of 755 strains, 9, 4 and 28 strains gave a positive MRHA with bovine, equine and pig erythrocytes, respectively. Of these isolates, 28 (3.7%) were characterized for positive MRHA by at least one blood. Seven isolates gave a positive MRHA with two kinds of blood. Three gave a positive MRHA with three kinds of blood. Twenty-eight strains, while positive in MRHA, yielded negative signals in the colony hybridization assay for the detection of heat-stable (STaI and STaII) and heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin genes in E. coli.

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  9. [국내논문]   THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SCALELESS MUTANT CHICKENS TO VERY VIRULENT MAREK'S DISEASE VIRUS  

    Lin, J.A. (Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University ) , Liu Tai, J.J. (Department of Animal Physiology, Taiwan Livestock Research Institute ) , Lu, Y.S. (Department of Epidemiology, Taiwan Provincial Research Institute for Animal Health ) , Liou, P.P. (Taiwan Povincial Research Institute for Animal Health ) , Tai, C. (Taiwan Livestock Research Institute)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.6 ,pp. 679 - 684 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    This study evaluates the susceptibility of scaleless mutant chickens to very virulent Marek's disease virus (vvMDV) inoculation. One day old chickens were inoculated subcutaneously with Taiwanese isolates of LTB-1 and LTS-1 strains, and standard strain of Md/5. Compared with the non-inoculated group the vvMDV-inoculated chickens showed decreased body weights and atrophy of lymphoid organs before 35 days old. These results indicate that scaleless chickens show the same susceptibility as the wild type chickens to vvMDV infection. Furthermore, the protective effect of herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) vaccination at 1 day old against vvMDV challenge was evaluated. Scaleless mutant chickens of treated groups showed 20-30% early death, and 85.7-100% and 12.5-14.2% had lymphomatous lesions in visceral organs and peripheral nerves, respectively. No significant lesions were observed in non-challenged chickens of the control group. The HVT vaccination did not provide an effective protection against vvMDV infection. It is concluded that scaleless mutant chickens are susceptible to vvMDV infection.

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  10. [국내논문]   THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MILK PROTEIN PHENOTYPES AND LACTATION TRAITS IN AYRSHIRES AND JERSEYS  

    Kim, S. (Department of Animal Science, McGill University ) , Ng-Kwai-Hang, K.F. (Department of Animal Science, McGill University ) , Hayes, J.F. (Department of Animal Science, McGill University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.9 no.6 ,pp. 685 - 693 , 1996 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    A total of 3,610 Ayrshire and 1,711 Jersey cows were phenotyped for the genetic variants of ${\alpha}_{s1}$ -casein, ${\beta}$ -casein, $\chi$ -casein, ${\beta}$ -lactoglobulin and ${\alpha}$ -lactalbumin. Least squares analyses showed possible associations between milk protein phenotypes and lactational production traits. Depending on lactation number, ${\beta}$ -casein phenotypes in Ayrshires were associated with milk production ( $A^2A^2$ > $A^1A^2$ > $A^1A^1$ ), and with milk protein content. In the third lactation, Ayrshire cows with ${\beta}$ -casein $A^1A^1$ produced milk with 3.43% fat compared to 3.37% fat for ${\beta}$ -casein $A^2A^2$ . In Ayrshire, $\chi$ -casein phenotypes affected the protein content during the three lactations (BB > AB > AA) and ${\beta}$ -lactoglobulin phenotypes significantly influenced the milk fat during the first lactation (4.06% for AA and 3.97% for BB). In Jerseys, protein content of milk was influenced by phenotypes of ${\alpha}_{s1}$ -casein(3.98% for CC v/s 3.86% for BB in the first lactation). In the third lactation, $\chi$ -casein AA of Jersey milk contained 5.35% fat compared to 4.82% for phenotype BB. The effects of ${\beta}$ -lactoglobulin phenotypes on protein content were apparent in Jerseys during the second lactation with the A variant being superior to the B (4.00% for AA v/s 3.87% for BB).

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